Advertisement

Zero Waste Discharge in Wastewater Reclamation System for Small Cities

  • G. Naidu
  • M. A. H. Johir
  • S. Shanmuganathan
  • A. Listowski
  • S. VigneswaranEmail author
Conference paper

Abstract

Presently, wastewater reclamation plants (WRPs) are widely adopting reverse osmosis (RO) as a polishing treatment in the final operation stage. Sydney Olympic Park Authority’s (SOPAs) WRP adopts a treatment operation of combined biological treatment, microfiltration and lastly RO. RO advantage is in maintaining a consistently good quality standard of water. Nevertheless, major limitations of using RO in SOPAs WRP are (a) high cost of RO and fouling susceptibility and (b) production of substantially large volume of wastewater RO concentrate (WWROC). The aim(s) of this study were to evaluate methods to overcome both these limitations by (i) investigating the integration of nanofiltration (NF) prior to RO to reduce cost and fouling issues; and (ii) evaluating the performance of membrane distillation (MD) for treating WWROC to achieve zero waste discharge. The results of this study highlighted (i) blending NF and RO permeate, acquired from a hybrid two-stage NF–RO process resulted in a water quality suited for irrigation. Utilizing NF prior to RO, reduced RO membrane fouling was more cost-effective compared to direct RO application. The hybrid NF–RO removed most of the micropollutants and therefore achieved reuse water quality that was safe to be applied for irrigation; and (ii) MD displayed minimal flux decline (13–15%) at 85% water recovery of WWROC and achieved freshwater with high quality (10–15 μS/cm, 99% ion rejection). The organic contents of micropollutants in WWROC were effectively reduced with granular activated carbon (GAC). This enabled to achieve good quality water (micropollutants-free) by MD with the potential of reuse.

Keywords

Nanofiltration Membrane distillation Wastewater reclamation plant 

References

  1. 1.
    Pérez-González A, Urtiaga A, Ibáñez R, Ortiz I (2012) State of the art and review on the treatment technologies of water reverse osmosis concentrates. Water Res 46:267–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tam L, Tang T, Lau GN, Sharma K, Chen G (2007) A pilot study for wastewater reclamation and reuse with MBR/RO and MF/RO systems. Desalination 202:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bagastyo AY, Keller J, Bagastyo AY, Keller J, Poussade Y, Batstone DJ (2011) Characterisation and removal of recalcitrants in reverse osmosis concentrates from water reclamation plants. Water Res 45:2415–2427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Umar M, Roddick F, Fan L, Autin O, Jefferson B (2015) Treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate using UVC-LED/H2O2 with and without coagulation pre-treatment. Chem Eng J 260:649–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johir MAH, Aryal R, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J, Grasmick A (2011) Influence of supporting media in suspension on membrane fouling reduction in submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR). J Memb Sci 374(1–2):121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ince M, Senturk E, Onkal Engin G, Keskinler B (2010) Further treatment of landfill leachate by nanofiltration and microfiltration - PAC hybrid process. Desalination 255(1–3):52–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naidu G, Jeong S, Choi Y, Vigneswaran S (2017) Membrane distillation for wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate treatment with water reuse potential. J Memb Sci 524:565–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shanmuganathan S, Johir MAH, Nguyen TV, Kandasamy J, Vigneswaran S (2015) Experimental evaluation of microfiltration–granular activated carbon (MF–GAC)/nano filter hybrid system in high quality water reuse. J Memb Sci 476:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Naidu
    • 1
  • M. A. H. Johir
    • 1
  • S. Shanmuganathan
    • 1
  • A. Listowski
    • 2
  • S. Vigneswaran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Engineering and Information TechnologyUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Sydney Olympic Park AuthoritySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations