Advertisement

Post-Imperial/Postcolonial English(es)

  • Kwok-kan Tam
Chapter

Abstract

Literature cannot be studied in isolation from the nation where it is produced, for it is a product of language and culture. However, as a “national” literature, English literature today is characterized by its being at the same time “transnational,” for it is expressed in a language that many other nations also speak or use. English literature has become transnational as the language goes global. The diffusion of the English language has led to an inevitable rise of literatures written in English in different parts of the world. In the international scene, “literatures in English” is a concept that has gradually been accepted as a replacement for “English literature” in recognition of the fact that there are different English literatures in the world. In the national scene, English literature is also “transnational” because its integral parts, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh literature, have their own distinct identities.

References

  1. Berthoud, R.G., T. Modood, P. Smith, and G. Prior. 1997. Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, 1993–1994. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 3685. < https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-3685-1>. Accessed June 28, 2018.
  2. Bhabha, Homi K. 1994a. “DissemiNation.” In The Location of Culture, 139–70. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bhabha, Homi K. 1994b. “How Newness Enters the World.” In The Location of Culture, 212–35. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bigsby, C. W. E. 1981. “The Language of Crisis in British Theatre: The Drama of Cultural Pathology.” In Contemporary English Drama (Stratford-Upon-Avon Studies, Vol. 19), edited by C. W. E. Bigsby. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  5. Colley, Linda. 1999. “Britishness in the 21st Century” (Millennium Lecture). <http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page3049.asp>. Accessed June 28, 2018.
  6. Crystal, David. 1997. English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Darwin, John. 1999. “Decolonization and the End of Empire.” In Historiography (The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 5), edited by Robin W. Winks, 541–57. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dobson, Janet, Khalid Koser, Gail Mclaughlan, and John Salt. 2001. International Migration and the United Kingdom: Recent Patterns and Trends (Final Report to the Home Office). RDS Occasional Paper No. 75. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  9. Easthope, Antony. 1999. Englishness and National Culture. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Freud, Sigmund. 1980. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (Pelican Freud Library, Vol. 11). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Original published in 1921.Google Scholar
  11. Hall, Stuart. 1996. “Politics of Identity.” In Culture, Identity and Politics, edited by Terence Ranger, Yunas Samad, and Ossie Stuart, 127–35. Aldershot and Hong Kong: Avebury.Google Scholar
  12. Kachru, Braj B. 1985. “Standards, Codification, and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle.” In English in the World: Teaching and Learning of Language and Literature, edited by Randolph Quirk and Henry Widdowson, 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kachru, Braj B. 1995a. “The Alchemy of English.” In The Post-Colonial Studies Reader, edited by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, 291–94. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Kachru, Braj B. 1995b. “The Intercultural Nature of Modern English.” Keynote speech at the 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference: <http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/confer/04/speech19a.htm>. Accessed January 12, 2010.
  15. Massey, Doreen. 1994. Space, Place and Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  16. McLaughlin, Daniel J. 2017. “What Does It Mean to be British?” Perspec, November 14, 2017. <http://www.perspecsnews.com/read/politics/losing-identity-after-brexit/r1g-Kyxw1M/S1l3QOfP1f>. Accessed June 28, 2018.
  17. McLeod, John. 2004. “ENGL3680 — Postcolonial London.” School of English, University of Leeds (<http://www.leeds.ac.uk/english/undergrad/modules/3680.htm>). See also John McLeod. 2004. Postcolonial London — Rewriting the Metropolis. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pinter, Harold. 1982. The Caretaker. London: Methuen. First published in 1960.Google Scholar
  19. Pinter, Harold. 1991. The Room and The Dumb Waiter. London: Faber and Faber. The Room was first published in 1960.Google Scholar
  20. Pool, Hannah, Emma Brockes, and Claire Phipps. 1999. “Interviews.” The Guardian, January 20, 1999. “British Studies Web Pages” at <http://www.elt.britcoun.org.pl/i_quote.htm>. Accessed June 28, 2018.
  21. Runnymede. 2000. The Future of Multi-ethnic Britain—The Parekh Report. London: Profile.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, Frances. 2016. “Britishness and Brexit.” EU-Referendum Analysis 2016. <https://www.referendumanalysis.eu/eu-referendum-analysis-2016/section-5-campaign-and-political-communication/britishness-and-brexit/>. Accessed June 28, 2018.
  23. Tam, Kwok-kan. 2004. “Introduction: English(es) in Global and Local Perspectives.” In English and Globalization: Perspectives from Hong Kong and Mainland China, edited by Kwok-kan Tam and Timothy Weiss, xi–xxvii. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Yano, Yasukata. 2001. “World Englishes in 2000 and Beyond.” World Englishes 20, no. 2: 119–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Young, Robert J. C. 1995. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwok-kan Tam
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hang Seng University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

Personalised recommendations