The Making of World Heritage Landscape

  • Agung Wardana


The relationship between tourism and agriculture has been problematic in Bali. Rapid conversion of agricultural land to develop tourism infrastructures has resulted in the fragmentation of rice fields, concentration of landownership, and marginalisation of farmers and subak (the traditional irrigation society). In order to marry tourism and agriculture, village and heritage tourism is developed to provide an added value to local farmers from tourist visits. This chapter examines the inscription of the Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Batukaru to UNESCO’s World Heritage Regime in an attempt to integrate the conservation of Bali’s cultural heritage with the global tourism market. Without carefully assessing the complex institutional and legal constellation and its implications for the social dynamics within which the landscape is produced, the inscription has led to contestations not only among state institutions, but also among local communities, in their efforts to access the benefits and control the negative externalities arising from UNESCO’s World Heritage Listing.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agung Wardana
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

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