Advertisement

The Making of World Heritage Landscape

  • Agung Wardana
Chapter

Abstract

The relationship between tourism and agriculture has been problematic in Bali. Rapid conversion of agricultural land to develop tourism infrastructures has resulted in the fragmentation of rice fields, concentration of landownership, and marginalisation of farmers and subak (the traditional irrigation society). In order to marry tourism and agriculture, village and heritage tourism is developed to provide an added value to local farmers from tourist visits. This chapter examines the inscription of the Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Batukaru to UNESCO’s World Heritage Regime in an attempt to integrate the conservation of Bali’s cultural heritage with the global tourism market. Without carefully assessing the complex institutional and legal constellation and its implications for the social dynamics within which the landscape is produced, the inscription has led to contestations not only among state institutions, but also among local communities, in their efforts to access the benefits and control the negative externalities arising from UNESCO’s World Heritage Listing.

References

Books and Article

  1. Blackstock, Kirsty. 2005. A Critical Look at Community Base Tourism. Community Development Journal 40: 39–49.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsi005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Tabanan. 2014. Kecamatan Penebel Dalam Angka 2014. Tabanan: Kantor Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Tabanan.Google Scholar
  3. Brenner, Neil. 2004. New State Space: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colchester, M., and M. Farhan Ferrari. 2007. Making FPIC Work: Challenges and Prospects for Indigenous Peoples. Moreton-in-Marsh: Forest Peoples Programme.Google Scholar
  5. Darma Putra, I Nyoman, and Michael Hitchcock. 2005. Pura Besakih: A World Heritage Contested. Indonesia and the Malay World 33: 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13639810500284116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dharmiasih, DA Wiwik, and Steve Lansing. 2014. Can World Heritage Status Save Bali from Destruction? Strategic Review – Indonesia 360. http://www.sr-indonesia.com/in_the_journal/view/can-world-heritage-status-save-bali-from-destruction?pg=all.
  7. Fox, James. 2009. The Discourse and Practice of Precedence. In Precedence: Social Differentiation in the Austronesian World, ed. M. Vischer, 91–109. Canberra: ANU E Press.Google Scholar
  8. Fox, Karyn M. 2012. Resilience in Action: Adaptive Governance for Subak, Rice Terrace, and Water Temples in Bali, Indonesia. University of Arizona Repository. http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/242455.
  9. Geertz, Clifford. 1959. Form and Variation in Balinese Village Structure. American Anthropologist 61: 991–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geertz, Clifford. 1980. Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Geertz, Hildred, and Clifford Geertz. 1975. Kinship in Bali. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Grenfell, Michael, ed. 2008. Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts. Durham: Acumen Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Hall, C. Michael. 2007. Tourism, Governance and the (Mis-)Location of Power. In Tourism, Power and Space, ed. A. Church and T. Coles, 247–268. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Harley, J. Brian. 1988. Maps, Knowledge, and Power. In The Iconography of Landscape: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environments, ed. D. Cosgrove and S. Daniels, 227–312. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites). 2012. Advisory Body Evaluation Concerning Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (Indonesia) No. 1194rev. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.Google Scholar
  16. Indonesia. Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MCT). 2011. Nomination for Inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List: Cultural Landscape of Bali Province. Dossier Submitted to the Secretariat of World Heritage Committee, UNESCO.Google Scholar
  17. Kough, Elizabeth. 2011. Heritage in Peril: A Critique of UNESCO’s World Heritage Program. Washington University Global Studies Law Review 10: 593–615.Google Scholar
  18. Lefebvre, Henri. 1991. Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  19. Li, Mimi, Bihu Wu, and Liping Cai. 2008. Tourism Development of World Heritage Sites in China: A Geographic Perspective. Tourism Management 29: 308–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lorenzen, Rachel, and Stephan Lorenzen. 2005. A Case Study of Balinese Irrigation Management: Institutional Dynamics and Challenges. Paper presented at the 2nd Southeast Asian Water Forum, Bali, Indonesia, 29 August–3 September 2005.Google Scholar
  21. MacRae, Graeme. 2016. Good Intentions, Mixed Realities. Inside Indonesia, edition 125, July–September. http://www.insideindonesia.org/good-intentions-mixed-realities.
  22. Moore, Sally F. 1973. Law and Social Change: The Semi-Autonomous Social Field as an Appropriate Subject of Study. Journal of Law and Society 7 (4): 719–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mosse, David. 1997. The Symbolic Making of a Common Property Resource: History, Ecology and Locality in a Tank-Irrigated Landscape in South India. Development and Change 28: 467–504.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Operational Management Committee of Jatiluwih. 2014. Laporan Keuangan Managemen Operasional Bulan Juli 2014. Tabanan: Badan Pengelola Daya Tarik Wisata Desa Jatiluwih.Google Scholar
  25. Parker, Lynn. 1989. Village and State in ‘New Order’ Bali. PhD diss., Australian National University.Google Scholar
  26. Parker, Lynn. 2003. From Subjects to Citizens: Balinese Villagers in the Indonesian Nation-State. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  27. Pitana, I Gde, and I.G. Setiawan Adi Putra. 2013. Pariwisata Sebagai Wahana Pelestarian Subak dan Budaya Subak sebagai Modal Dasar Dalam Pariwisata. Paper presented at Bali Culture Congress Pengantar Budaya Subak sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Denpasar, 24–25 September 2013.Google Scholar
  28. Prasiasa, Dewa. 2010. Pengembangan Pariwisata dan Keterlibatan Masyarakat di Desa Wisata Jatiluwih Kabupaten Tabanan. PhD diss., Udayana University.Google Scholar
  29. Reuter, Thomas. 2009. Origin and Precedence: The Construction and Distribution of Status in the Highlands of Bali. In Precedence: Social Differentiation in the Austronesian World, ed. M. Vischer, 13–49. Canberra: ANU E-Press.Google Scholar
  30. Sahlins, Marshall. 1974. Stone Age Economies. Chicago and New York: Aldine-Atherton, Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Art of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Smith, Laurajane. 2006. Uses of Heritage. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Strauss, Sophie. 2015. Alliances Across Ideologies: Networking with NGOs in a Tourism Dispute in Northern Bali. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 16 (2): 123–140.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2014.1001996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Subadra, I.N., and N.M. Nadra. 2006. Dampak Ekonomi, Social-Budaya, dan Lingkungan Pengembangan Desa Wisata di Jatiluwih-Tabanan. Jurnal Manajemen Pariwisata 5: 46–64.Google Scholar
  36. Timothy, Dallen. 2007. Empowerment and Stakeholder Participation in Tourism Destination Communities. In Tourism, Power and Space, ed. A. Church and T. Coles, 199–216. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Urry, John. 2002. The Tourist Gaze. 2nd ed. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Vickers, Adrian. 2012. Bali: A Paradise Created. 2nd ed. Tokyo, Vermont and Singapore: Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Wardana, Agung. 2014a. Adat-Dinas in the Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: Defining the Domain of World Heritage Within a Pluralistic Legal Setting. Paper presented at the International Conference on State Policy and the Cultural Politics of Heritage-Making in East and Southeast Asia, Singapore, January 16–17.Google Scholar
  40. Warren, Carol. 1993. Adat and Dinas: Balinese Communities in the Indonesian State. Kuala Lumpur and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Warren, Carol. 2012. Risk and the Sacred: Environment, Media and Public Opinion in Bali. Oceania 82: 294–307.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4461.2012.tb00135.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Windia, Wayan. 2013. Penguatan Budaya Subak Melalui Pemberdayaan Petani. Journal of Bali Studies 3 (2): 137–158.Google Scholar
  43. Yamashita, Shinji. 2003. Bali and Beyond: Exploration in the Anthropology of Tourism. Trans. J.S. Eades. New York: Berhahn Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agung Wardana
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations