Advertisement

Crisis and Reorganisation of Space

  • Agung Wardana
Chapter

Abstract

Many scholars of Bali Studies have observed that Bali is reaching its tipping point and is on the verge of ‘self-destruction’. The ways in which this socio-ecological crisis is conceived and responded are dominantly based on three approaches: the rational-choice approach, the conservative approach, and the institutional approach. One notorious strategy for addressing the crisis by utilising those three approaches is the reorganisation of spatial configuration by enacting a spatial planning regulation. In the regulation, areas that are considered vital to the interests of the provincial government situated within district territories are designated as ‘provincial strategic areas’. Three among those designated provincial strategic areas—Uluwatu Temple, Jatiluwih, and Benoa Bay—are the locations of the three case studies explored in this book. Each of these cases iconically represents important spatial governance issues affecting the environment, culture, and socio-economic viability of local communities in Bali.

References

Books and Article

  1. Allmendinger, Philip, and Mark Tewdwr-Jones. 2006. Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning. In Territory, Identity and Spatial Planning: Spatial Governance in a Fragmented Nation, ed. M. Tewdwr-Jones and P. Allmendinger, 3–21. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Apriando, Tommy. 2014. Jerinx SID: Pembangunan Yang Benar Tidak Melukai Struktur Sosial & Ekologi Bali. Mongabay, April 11. http://www.mongabay.co.id/2014/04/11/jerinx-sid-pembangunan-yang-benar-tidak-melukai-struktur-sosial-ekologi-bali/.
  3. Arida, Sukma. 2008. Krisis Lingkungan Bali dan Peluang Ekowisata. Jurnal Ekonomi dan Sosial 1 (2): 118–122.Google Scholar
  4. Arya Utama, I Made, and I Ketut Sudiarta. 2011. Kajian Normatif terhadap Efektifitas Perda Bali No. 16 Tahun 2009 tentang Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Provinsi Bali Tahun 2009–2029 serta Strategi Implementasinya. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Developing Bali in the Frame of Spatial Planning for Bali, Udayana University, Denpasar, 6 May 2011.Google Scholar
  5. Atmadja, Bawa. 2010a. Ajeg Bali: Gerakan, Identitas Kultural dan Globalisasi. Yogyakarta: LKis.Google Scholar
  6. Atmadja, Bawa. 2010b. Genealogi Keruntuhan Majapahit: Islamisasi, Toleransi dan Pemertahanan Agama Hindu di Bali. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.Google Scholar
  7. Bianchi, Raoul. 2009. The ‘Cultural Turn’ in Tourism Studies: A Radical Critique. Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place, and Environment 11 (4): 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birkelbach, Aubrey. 1973. The Subak Association. Indonesia 16: 153–169.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3350651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Badung. 1996. Kecamatan Kuta Selatan Dalam Angka 1996. Badung: BPS Badung.Google Scholar
  10. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Badung. 2002. Kecamatan Kuta Selatan Dalam Angka 2002. Badung: BPS Badung.Google Scholar
  11. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Badung. 2010. Kecamatan Kuta Selatan Dalam Angka 2010. Badung: BPS Badung.Google Scholar
  12. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Badung. 2013. Kecamatan Kuta Selatan Dalam Angka 2013. Badung: BPS Badung.Google Scholar
  13. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 1997. Bali Dalam Angka 1997. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  14. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2001. Bali Dalam Angka 2001. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  15. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2003. Bali Dalam Angka 2003. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  16. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2005. Bali Dalam Angka 2005. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  17. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2011. Bali Dalam Angka 2011. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  18. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2013. Bali Dalam Angka 2013. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  19. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2014a. Bali Dalam Angka 2014. Denpasar: Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  20. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Bali. 2014b. Luas Lahan Menurut Penggunaannya di Provinsi Bali 2013. Denpasar: BPS Provinsi Bali.Google Scholar
  21. Butt, Simon, and Nicholas Parsons. 2014. Judicial Review and the Supreme Court in Indonesia: A New Space for Law. Indonesia 97: 55–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassrels, Deborah. 2014. Bali Crime Wave Leaves Expats Bruised and Wary. The Australian, May 16. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/bali-crime-wave-leaves-expats-bruised-and-wary/story-e6frg6nf-1226919371507.
  23. Cole, Stroma. 2012. A Political Ecology of Water Equity and Tourism: A Case Study from Bali. Annals of Tourism Research 39: 1221–1241.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cole, Stroma, and Mia Browne. 2015. Tourism and Water Inequity in Bali: A Social-Ecological Systems Analysis. Human Ecology 43: 439–450.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-015-9739-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dharma Putra, Ketut Gede. 2009. Pencemaran Lingkungan Hidup di Kawasan Teluk Benoa Bali: Perspektif Kajian Budaya. PhD diss., Udayana University.Google Scholar
  26. Erawan, Nyoman. 1994. Pariwisata dan Pembangunan Ekonomi: Bali Sebagai Studi Kasus. Denpasar: Upada Sastra.Google Scholar
  27. Fagertun, Anette. 2017a. Labour in Paradise: Gender, Class and Social Mobility in the Informal Tourism Economy of Urban Bali, Indonesia. The Journal of Development Studies 53 (3): 331–345.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2016.1184248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farid, Hilmar. 2005. Indonesia’s Original Sin: Mass Killings and Capitalist Expansion, 1965–1966. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 6 (1): 3–16.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1462394042000326879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fletcher, Robert. 2011. Sustaining Tourism, Sustaining Capitalism? The Tourism Industry’s Role in Global Capitalist Expansion. Tourism Geographies 13 (3): 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fox, Karyn M. 2012. Resilience in Action: Adaptive Governance for Subak, Rice Terrace, and Water Temples in Bali, Indonesia. University of Arizona Repository. http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/242455.
  31. Gerard, Kelly. 2014. ASEAN’s Engagement of Civil Society: Regulating Dissent. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hadiz, Vedi R. 2014. The Organizational Vehicles of Islamic Political Dissent: Social Bases, Genealogies and Strategies. In Between Dissent and Power: The Transformation of Islamic Politics in the Middle East and Asia, ed. Khoo Boo Teik, Vedi Hadiz, and Yoshihiro Nakanishi, 42–65. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Hadiz, Vedi R., and Richard Robison. 2012. Political Economy and Islamic Politics: Insights from Indonesian Case. New Political Economy 17 (2): 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harvey, David. 2003. The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Heryanto, Ariel, and Vedi R. Hadiz. 2005. Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: A Comparative Southeast Asian Perspective. Critical Asian Studies 37 (2): 251–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Howe, Leo. 2005. The Changing World of Bali: Religion, Society and Tourism. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Hudallah, Delik, and Johan Woltjer. 2007. Spatial Planning System in Transitional Indonesia. International Planning Studies 12 (8): 291–303.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13563470701640176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Indonesia. Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (CMEA). 2011. Master Plan Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic Development 2011–2025. Jakarta: Republic of Indonesia.Google Scholar
  39. Indonesia. Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MCT). 2011. Nomination for Inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List: Cultural Landscape of Bali Province. Dossier Submitted to the Secretariat of World Heritage Committee, UNESCO.Google Scholar
  40. Jessop, Bob. 2004. Spatial Fixes, Temporal Fixes, and Spatio-Temporal Fixes. Published by the Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/sociology/papers/jessop-spatio-temporal-fixes.pdf.
  41. Kurnianingsih, Atiek. n.d. Ketika 5000 Ha Lahan Sawah Bersaing Air dengan 4000 Kamar Hotel Berbintang. http://wisnu.or.id/v2/ID/pdf/5000Ha%20Sawah_4000%20Kamar.pdf.
  42. Lansing, Steve J. 2007 [1991]. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lees, Susan H. 2001. Kicking Off the Kaiko: Instability, Opportunism, and Crisis in Ecological Anthropology. In Ecology and the Sacred: Engaging the Anthropology of Roy A. Rappaport, ed. E. Messer and M. Lambek, 49–63. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  44. Lefebvre, Henri. 1991. Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, Jeff, and Belinda Lewis. 2009. Bali’s Silent Crisis: Desire, Tragedy, and Transition. Lanham and Plymouth: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  46. Lorenzen, Rachel, and Stephan Lorenzen. 2005. A Case Study of Balinese Irrigation Management: Institutional Dynamics and Challenges. Paper presented at the 2nd Southeast Asian Water Forum, Bali, Indonesia, 29 August–3 September 2005.Google Scholar
  47. Lucas, Anton, and Carol Warren, eds. 2013. Land for the People: The State and Agrarian Conflict in Indonesia. Athens: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  48. MacRae, Graeme. 2003. The Value of Land in Bali: Land Tenure, Land Reform and Commodification. In Inequality, Crisis and Social Change in Indonesia: The Muted Worlds of Bali, ed. T. Reuter, 145–167. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. MacRae, Graeme. 2005. Negara Ubud: The Theatre-State in Twenty-First-Century Bali. History and Anthropology 16 (4): 393–413.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02757200500344616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. MacRae, Graeme. 2010. If Indonesia Is Too Hard to Understand, Let’s Start with Bali. Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities 3: 11–36.Google Scholar
  51. MacRae, Graeme, and I.W. Alit Arthawiguna. 2011. Sustainable Agricultural Development in Bali: Is the Subak an Obstacle, an Agent or Subject? Human Ecology 39 (1): 11–20.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-011-9386-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marshall, Andrew. 2011. Holidays in Hell: Bali’s Ongoing Woes. Time, April 9. http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2062604,00.html.
  53. McCarthy, John. 1994. Are Sweet Dreams Made of This? Tourism in Bali and Eastern Indonesia. Northcote, Australia: Indonesia Resources and Information.Google Scholar
  54. Oliphant, Roland. 2017. Bali Declares Rubbish Emergency as Rising Tide of Plastic Buries Beaches. The Telegraph, December 26. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/28/bali-declares-rubbish-emergency-rising-tide-plastic-buries-beaches/. Accessed 30 Dec 2017.
  55. Pansus Otonomi Khusus (Otsus) Bali. 2007. Talenta Bali Menuju Otonomi Khusus. Denpasar: Bali Media.Google Scholar
  56. Picard, Michael. 1996. Bali: Cultural Tourism and Touristic Culture. Trans. Diana Darling. Singapore: Archipelago Press.Google Scholar
  57. Pitana, I Gde, and I.G. Setiawan Adi Putra. 2013. Pariwisata Sebagai Wahana Pelestarian Subak dan Budaya Subak sebagai Modal Dasar Dalam Pariwisata. Paper presented at Bali Culture Congress Pengantar Budaya Subak sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Denpasar, 24–25 September 2013.Google Scholar
  58. Prasiasa, Dewa. 2010. Pengembangan Pariwisata dan Keterlibatan Masyarakat di Desa Wisata Jatiluwih Kabupaten Tabanan. PhD diss., Udayana University.Google Scholar
  59. Pusat Pengendalian Pembangunan Ekoregion (PPPE) Bali & Nusa Tenggara. 2015. Buku Saku Data Kehutanan Provinsi Bali. Denpasar: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan.Google Scholar
  60. Ramstedt, Martin. 2009. Regional Autonomy and Its Discontents: The Case of Post-New Order Bali. In Decentralization and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia: Implementation and Challenges, ed. C. Holtzappel and M. Ramstedt, 329–379. Leiden and Singapore: IIAS and ISEAS Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramstedt, Martin. 2013. Religion and Disputes in Bali’s New Village Jurisdiction. In Religion in Disputes: Pervasiveness of Religious Normativity in Disputing Processes, ed. F. von Benda-Beckmann, K. von Benda-Beckmann, M. Ramstedt, and B. Turner, 111–128. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reuter, Thomas, ed. 2003. Inequality, Crisis and Social Change in Indonesia: The Muted Worlds of Bali. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Robinson, Geoffrey. 1995. The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Robison, Richard. 2014. Political Economy and the Explanation of the Islamic Politics in the Contemporary World. In Between Dissent and Power: The Transformation of Islamic Politics in the Middle East and Asia, ed. Khoo Boo Teik, Vedi Hadiz, and Yoshihiro Nakanishi, 19–41. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. Rodan, Garry, Kevin Hewison, and Richard Robison. 2006. Theorising Markets in Southeast Asia: Power and Contestation. In The Political Economy of Southeast Asia: Markets, Power and Contestation, ed. G. Rodan, K. Hewison, and R. Robison, 1–38. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Roth, Dik. 2009. Property and Authority in a Migrant Society: Balinese Irrigators in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Development and Change 40 (1): 195–217.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2009.01511.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sage, Caroline, and Michael Woolcock. 2005. Breaking Legal Inequality Traps: New Approaches to Building Justice System for the Poor in Developing Countries. Paper presented at the World Bank Conference, New Frontiers of Social Policy: Developing in a Globalizing World, Arusha, Tanzania, December 12–14.Google Scholar
  68. Schulte Nordholt, Henk. 2000. Localizing Modernity in Colonial Bali During the 1930s. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 31 (1): 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schulte Nordholt, Henk. 2000. Localizing Modernity in Colonial Bali During the . 2007. Bali, An Open Fortress 1995–2005: Regional Autonomy, Electoral Democracy and Entrenched Identities. Singapore: NUS University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Spiertz, H.L. 2000. Water Rights and Legal Pluralism: Some Basic of a Legal Anthropological Approach. In Negotiating Water Rights, ed. B.R. Bruns and R.S. Meinzen-Dick, 162–199. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Strauss, Sophie. 2015. Alliances Across Ideologies: Networking with NGOs in a Tourism Dispute in Northern Bali. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 16 (2): 123–140.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2014.1001996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Suartika, G.A.M. 2005. Vanishing Paradise: Planning and Conflict in Bali. PhD diss., University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  73. Sudhiatmika, I Dewa Nyoman Ketha. 2010. Orang Bali Yang Lain: Proses Saling Me-‘Liyan’-kan Antara Orang Nusa Penida dan Bali Daratan. Master Thesis. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.Google Scholar
  74. Suharyo. 2011. Laporan Penelitian tentang Pembentukan Otonomi Khusus di Bali dan Pengaruhnya Bagi Keutuhan NKRI. Jakarta: Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional, Kementerian Hukum dan HAM RI.Google Scholar
  75. Sunarta, I Nyoman, and Abd Rahman As-syakur. 2015. Study on the Development of Water Crisis in Bali Island in 2009 and 2013. E-Journal of Tourism Udayana University 2 (1): 45–57.Google Scholar
  76. Sunarta, N., M.S. Mahendra, A.A.S. Wiranatha, and S.A. Paturusi. 2015. Study of Land-Use Change on Tourism Area Using High Spatial Resolution of Remote Sensing Imagery. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research 8 (1): 17–31.Google Scholar
  77. Sutawan, Nyoman. 2001. Eksistensi Subak di Bali: Mampukah Bertahan Menghadapi Berbagai Tantangan. SOCA: Socio-Economic of Agriculture and Agribusiness 1 (2): 1–10.Google Scholar
  78. Trisnawati, H. n.d. Dampak Perkembangan Infrastruktur Pariwisata terhadap Konflik Air di Kabupaten Badung dan Tabanan. E-Journal UNUD. http://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/jip/article/view/3671/2699.
  79. van Klinken, Gerry. 2007. Return of the Sultans: The Communitarian Turn in Local Politics. In The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The Deployment of Adat from Colonialism to Indigenism, ed. J. Davidson and D. Henley, 149–169. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Vickers, Adrian. 2012. Bali: A Paradise Created. 2nd ed. Tokyo, Vermont and Singapore: Tuttle Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Wardana, Agung. 2013. Melihat Kembali Merosotnya Wacana ‘Ajeg Bali’. Journal of Bali Studies 3 (2): 211–216.Google Scholar
  82. Wardana, Agung. 2014b. Alliances and Contestations in the Legal Production of Space: The Case of Bali. Asian Journal of Comparative Law 9: 145–171.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S2194607800000958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wardana, Agung. 2015. Debating Spatial Governance in the Pluralistic Institutional and Legal Setting of Bali. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 16 (2): 106–122.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213.2014.997276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Warren, Carol. 2007. Adat in Balinese Discourse and Practice: Locating Citizenship and the Commonweal. In The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The Deployment of Adat from Colonialism to Indigenism, ed. J. Davidson and D. Henley, 170–202. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Warren, Carol. 2009. Off the Market? Elusive Links in Community-Based Sustainable Development Initiatives in Bali. In Community, Environment and Local Governance in Indonesia: Locating the Commonweal, ed. C. Warren and J. McCarthy, 197–226. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Warren, Carol. 2012. Risk and the Sacred: Environment, Media and Public Opinion in Bali. Oceania 82: 294–307.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4461.2012.tb00135.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Windia, Wayan. 2015. Bali ‘Tong Sampah’ Kejahatan. Majalah Bali Post, Edisi 26 Juni–5 Juli.Google Scholar
  88. Yamashita, Shinji. 2003. Bali and Beyond: Exploration in the Anthropology of Tourism. Trans. J.S. Eades. New York: Berhahn Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agung Wardana
    • 1
  1. 1.Universitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations