Intra and Inter-Species Communication in Microbes: Living with Complex and Sociable Neighbors
Quorum sensing is a signaling mechanism wherein the microbes interact with each other through diverse chemical signals, known as auto inducers. Microbes not only synthesize, secrete, detect and respond to the chemical signals but also sense the signals that they do not synthesize in their immediate environment to discriminate their neighbors from others. Intra and inter-species communications between microbes surrounded by biofilm could be antagonistic, such as competition over nutrients and growth inhibition, or synergistic. These comprise the mixed biofilm development by co-aggregation; metabolic cooperation where one species utilizes a metabolite produced by its nearest species, along with augmented resistance to antibiotics or immune responses host. Interestingly bioluminescence, virulence factor expression, antimicrobial resistance, sporing and maturation of microbes also depend on mixed communications. These favourable interactions in mixed biofilms have important environmental, industrial and clinical connotations. The present review emphasizes the current knowledge relating to intra and species auto inducers and their role in activation of genes along with the receptors and signal molecules released by host cells.
KeywordsAuto inducers Intra and inter communication Quorum sensing Multi-species biofilm formation
Dr. PVBC is grateful to Krishna University for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work and for extending constant support.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
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