The Representation of IMGs as Problematic?

  • Vicki Adele PascoeEmail author


Chapter 6 explores a problem representation approach applied to IMGs and the concept of a wicked problem. The string of inquiries into IMGs and aspects of medicine and medical workforce are outlined. The position of IMGs, their supply and movement globally and associated ethical arguments is discussed. Reasons why IMGs migrate and risk taking for safety is explored as well as refugees and human rights.


  1. Al Muderis, M., & Weaver, P. (2014). Walking free. Crows Nest: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, S. (2016). Who will come to Australia, viewed 19 October 2016,
  3. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2014). AHPRA responds to parliamentary committee report, 1, AHPRA, Sydney, 12 March 2014,
  4. Australian Public Service Commission. (2007). Tackling wicked problems: a public policy perspective . Contemporary government challenges. Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  5. Bacchi, C. (2009). Analysing policy: What’s the problem represented to be?. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.Google Scholar
  6. Bauman, Z. (2013). In Z. Bauman (Ed.), Community: Seeking safety in an insecure world. Hoboken: Wiley, viewed 10 April 2017, (ProQuest Ebook Central)
  7. Campbell, D., Siddique, H., Kirk, A., & Meikle, J. (2015). NHS hires up to 3000 foreign-trained doctors in a year to plug staff shortages. The Guardian, 29 January 2015.Google Scholar
  8. Castles, S., Foster, W., Iredale, R., & Withers, G. (1998). Immigration and Australia: Myths and realities. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin in conjunction with the housing industry association Ltd.Google Scholar
  9. Committee of Inquiry into Medical Education and Medical Workforce. (1988). Australian medical education and workforce into the 21st century, Canberra.Google Scholar
  10. Donnelly, L. (2014). UK has fewer doctors than almost every EU country. Telegraph UK. 3 December 2014.
  11. Ewart, J. (2012). Framing an alleged terrorist: How four Australian news media organisations framed the Dr Mohamed Haneef case. Journal of Media and Religion, 11(2), 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewart, J., & Posetti, J. (2008) The reporting of the Mohamed Haneef Story. In State of the news print media in Australia (pp. 6–13).Google Scholar
  13. Fry, R. (1982). Australian committee of inquiry into the recognition of overseas qualifications. Recognition of overseas qualifications in Australia: Report of committee of inquiry . Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  14. Hawthorne, L. (2013). International medical migration: What is the future for Australia? Medical Journal of Australia, pp. 18–21, viewed 2 May 2018,, Scholar
  15. Hawthorne, L. (2014). A comparison of skilled migration policy: Australia, Canada and New Zealand, (pp. 1–14), viewed 1 May 2018,
  16. Hoekje, B. J. (2007). Medical discourse and ESP courses for IMGs. English for Specific Purposes, 26(3), 327–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. House of Representatives Standing Committee on Health and Ageing. (2012). Lost in the Labyrinth: Report on the Inquiry into Registration Processes and Support for Overseas Trained Doctors. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.Google Scholar
  18. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. (1991). The experiences of overseas medical practitioners in Australia: An analysis in the light of the racial discrimination act 1975, Sydney.Google Scholar
  19. Innes, J. E., & Booher, D. E. (2016) Collaborative relationality as a strategy for working with wicked problems. Landscape and Urban Planning, 154, 1–132, viewed 1 May 2017,, via
  20. Iredale, R. (2009). Luring overseas trained doctors to Australia: Issues of training, regulating and trading. International Migration, 47(4), 31–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keim, T., Vogler, S., Tin, J., & Baskin, B. (2013). Dr Death gets off: Manslaughter charges dropped against Jayant Patel, LNP and Labor start blame game. Courier Mail, 16 November.Google Scholar
  22. Kidd, M., & Braun, F. (1992). Problems encountered by overseas-trained doctors migrating to Australia. Canberra: Bureau of Immigration Research.Google Scholar
  23. Knowles, R. (2015). Expert advisory group draft report on discrimination, bullying and sexual harassment. Melbourne: Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  24. Kovach, M. (2005). Emerging from the margins: Indigenous methodologies. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as resistance: Critical, indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches (pp. 19–36). Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lavery, J. V. (2016). Wicked problems, community engagement and the need for an implementation science for research ethics. Journal of Medical ethics, 10(10), 1–2, viewed 21 April 2017,, Scholar
  26. Law Council of Australia. (2008). Clarke inquiry into the case of Dr Mohamed Haneef, Canberra.Google Scholar
  27. Li, S. S. Y., Liddell, B. J., & Nickerson, A. (2016). The relationship between post-migration stress and psychological disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(82), 1–9, viewed 19 April 2017,
  28. Malekpour, M., Fatehizadeh, M., Hashemian, S., & Velayati, A. (2009). Retaining health manpower in developing countries. The Lancet, 374(9686), 291–292, viewed 2 November 2012, Scholar
  29. Newman, J., & Head, B. (2017). The national context of wicked problems: Comparing policies on gun violence in the US, Canada, and Australia. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 19(1), 40–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Phillips, J., Klapdor, M., & Simon-Davies, J. (2010). Migration to Australia since federation: A guide to the statistics (pp. 1–29), viewed 23 May 2017,
  31. Roberts, N. (2000). Coping with wicked problems. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.Google Scholar
  32. Schech, S., & Haggis, J. (2000). Culture and development. Oxford: Blackwell publishers.Google Scholar
  33. Schotel, B. (2012). On the right of exclusion: Law, ethics and immigration policy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Sherden, A., & Cannane, S. (2015). Neurosurgeon Dr Charlie teo says ‘bullying culture’ in medicine destroying lives, backs call for inquiry Lateline 4 September 2015.
  35. Smith, S. D. (2008). The global workforce shortages and the migration of medical professions: The Australian response. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 5(7), viewed 6 June 2009, Scholar
  36. The National Population Council. (1988). Recognition of overseas qualifications and skills: Report by a working party. Canberra: Department of Immigration, Local government and ethnic affairs.Google Scholar
  37. The NSW Committee of Inquiry. (1989). Recognition of overseas qualifications. Sydney: Premier’s office.Google Scholar
  38. The Senate Community Affairs References Committee. (2016). Medical complaints process in Australia . Canberra.
  39. The World Bank. (2011). Physicians per 1000, 17 May 2016,
  40. Toader, E., & Sfetcu, L. (2013). The medical migration: Experiences and perspectives of medical students for the professional career. Revista de cercetare si interventie sociala, 40, 124–136.Google Scholar
  41. United Nations. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights, viewed 30 November 2012,
  42. Walsh, A., Banner, S., Schabort, I., Armson, H., Bowmer, I., & Granata, B. (2011). International medical graduates—Current issues, Canada.Google Scholar
  43. Waddell, S. (2016). Societal change systems: A framework to address wicked problems. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 52(4), 422–449, viewed 25 October 2016, (Downloaded from Flinders University) Scholar
  44. Waddock, S. (2013). The Wicked problems of global sustainability need wicked (good) leaders and wicked (good) collaborative solutions. Journal of Management for Global Sustainability, 1, 91–111, viewed 1 May 2017, Scholar
  45. World Health Organisation. (2011). The WHO code of global practice on the international recruitment of health personnel, WHO, viewed 20 October 2016,
  46. World Health Organisation. (2016a). Medical and nursing students’ intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: A cross-sectional survey in Asia and Africa. Bulletin of the WHO, viewed 12 October 2016,
  47. World Health Organisation. (2016b). Royal college of surgeons Ireland workforce alliance, 30 June 2016. World Health Organisation (WHO), 12 October 2016,
  48. Xenophon, N. (2016). Senate inquiry into medical complaints regime: Health complaints system under the microscope, Canberra, 2 February 2016,

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Principal ResearcherIndependent Education ConsultancyAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations