Interactive Governance at Anasagar Lake Management in India: Analyzing Using Institutional Analysis Development Framework

  • Mansee BhargavaEmail author


The governance of Anasagar toward its sustainability is driven by the physical, institutional, and community characteristics and their interrelations. They are crucial to document and understand the interactive water governance process in the urban lakes of India. Anasagar is located in the heart of pilgrim city of Ajmer city in Rajasthan India. The lake has been historically a rainwater harvesting reservoir; however, today not only rainwater but also wastewater is running into the lake. In the recent lake restoration process, the decided full tank water level of the lake has led to submergence of several developments at the lake shore. This has led to dissatisfaction among the local people since several of the submerged lands belong to them. Anasagar is an atypical lake in India whose lake area is divided into several land parcels and ownerships including both private and government. The water pollution continues in the lake since the inlet drainages carrying rainwater and wastewater from the surrounding hills and the urban development are awaiting treatments before flowing into the lake. Facing the dilemma of development and conservation of the lake by the physical, institutional, and community factors, the chapter discusses the complex problems and processes that influence the lake governance toward sustainable development.


Interactive water governance Anasagar Urban Lake IAD Framework 



I thank the reviewers for the insights in refining the direction and presentation of the paper, the IDE-JETRO for the Research Grant (2016–17) for the project ‘Interactive Approaches to Water Governance: Case Studies in Asia, in particular thanks to Kenji Otsuka for leading the project, the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, RIHN, Kyoto for the Research Fellowship (2014–15) to carry out an action research on Anasagar. My sincere thanks extends to the local organizations and the people of Ajmer for being instrumental during the fieldwork and the Maharishi Dayanand Sarasvati University Ajmer for co-hosting the Workshop ‘Water and Wetland’ for knowledge exchange on Anasagar.


  1. ADA. 2007. Detail Project Report on Anasagar Lake Project. Ajmer: Ajmer Development Authority.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2013. Master Development Plan (Draft)-Ajmer The Region in Hindi. Ajmer: Ajmer Development Authority.Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal, A., and S. Narain. 2001. Dying Wisdom. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, CSE.Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal, A., S. Narain, and I. Khurana. 2001. Making Water Everybody’s Business: Practice and Policy of Water Harvesting. Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment.Google Scholar
  5. Agrawal, Y.C. n.d. Catchment Areas and Their Restoration. Jaipur: Water Resources Department, Government of Rajasthan State of India.Google Scholar
  6. AMC and PMB. 2006. City Development Plan For Ajmer and Pushkar. Ajmer: Ajmer Municipal Corporation and Pushkar Municipal Board.Google Scholar
  7. Arnstein, S.R. 1969. A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of planners 35 (4): 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bal, M. 2015a. Social-ecological System Framework. Understanding Urban Lake Governance and Sustainability in India. In PhD thesis published at the Erasmus University Rotterdam Scholar
  9. ———. 2015b. A Social-Ecological system approach to analyse Anasagar Governance. Report submitted to the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, RIHN Kyoto.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2016. Proceedings of the Workshop ‘Water and Wetland: Looking For Smart Solutions’. MDS University Ajmer on 19 Mar 2016. Paper presentation on ‘Analysing Anasagar from a Social-Ecological system approach’.Google Scholar
  11. Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2003. Navigating Social-ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Edelenbos, J. 2005. Institutional Implications of Interactive Governance: Insights from Dutch Practice. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions 18 (1): 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edelenbos, J., and I.F. Van Meerkerk. 2017. Normative Theory. In Handbook on Theories of Governance, ed. J. Torfing and C. Ansell. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. GWP-TAC. 2000. Integrated Water Resource Management Tool Box Version 2. Global Water Partnership.Google Scholar
  15. IL&FS. 2007. Detail Project Report on Anasagar Lake Project.Google Scholar
  16. ILEC. 2007. Integrated Lake Basin Management: An Introduction. Kusatsu: International Lake Environment Committee Foundation Scholar
  17. JnNURM. 2005. Internal Earmarking of Funds for Services to Urban Poor, ULB Level Reform. Mandatory Premier. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Government of India.Google Scholar
  18. Kickert, W.J.M. 1997. Public governance in the Netherlands: An alternative to Anglo-American ‘manegerialism’. Public Administration 75 (4): 731–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kiser, L.L., and E. Ostrom. 1982. The Three Worlds of Action: A Metatheoretical Synthesis of Institutional Approaches. In Strategies of Political Inquiry, ed. E. Ostrom, 179–222. Beverly Hills: Sage Reprinted in McGinnis, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. Kooiman, J. 1993. Findings, Speculations and Recommendations. In Modern Governance: New Government – Society Interactions, ed. J. Kooiman, 249–262. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Kooiman, J. 2003. Governing as Governance. Part III. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Lintner, S.F. 2007. Opportunities and Challenges in Integrated Lake Basin Management. Shiga: ILEC, International Lake Environment Committee Foundation.Google Scholar
  23. Loorbach, D. 2007. Transition Management: New Mode of Governance for Sustainable Development. Utrecht: International Books.Google Scholar
  24. McGinnis, M. 2011. An Introduction to IAD and the Language of the Ostrom Workshop: A Simple Guide to a Complex Framework. The Policy Studies Journal 39 (1): 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation (MoUEaPA) and Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD). 2007. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM): Over view. MoUEaPA and MoUD. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  26. MoEF. 1990. Wetlands of India -A Directory. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests. Government of India.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2004–05. Annual Report. Conservation of Water Bodies. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2008. Guidelines for National Lake Conservation Plan. New Delhi: National River Conservation Directorate. MoEF, GoI.Google Scholar
  29. Narayanan, N.C., and J.P. Venot. 2009. Drivers of Change in Fragile Environments: Challenges to Governance in Indian Wetlands. Natural Resources Forum 33 (4): 320–333 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Olson, M. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———. 2005. Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 2009. A General Framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-Ecological Systems. Science 325 (5939): 419–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ostrom, V., and E. Ostrom. 1977. A Theory for Institutional Analysis of Common Pool Problems. In Managing the Commons, 157–172. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  35. Pandey, D.N., B. Gopal, and K.C. Sharma. n.d. Compiled a List of Publications on Anasagar in Their Report on ‘Evidence-Based Holistic Restoration of Lake Anasagar’ Submitted to the High Court of Rajasthan.Google Scholar
  36. Peters, B.G., and J. Pierre. (draft). 2012. Interactive Governance. Pittsburgh: Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  37. Pierre, J., ed. 1998. Partnerships in Urban Governance: European and American Experience. Basingstoke: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Putnam, R. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  39. Sarda, H.B. 1911. AFMER: Historical and Descriptive. Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Company Limited.Google Scholar
  40. Schoon, M.L., and M.E. Cox. 2012. Understanding Disturbances and Responses in Social-ecological Systems. Society & Natural Resources 25 (2): 141–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma, K.C., P.D. Charan, and M. Nag. 2009. An Integrated Restoration Plan for Lake Anasagar: Athreatened Water Body of Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. In Proceedings of 13th World Lake Conference, 1–5 November, Wuhan, China 2009.Google Scholar
  42. Sharma, K.P. Sharma, S. Sharma, S. Sharma, P.K. Swami, R.C. Singh, P.K. & Rathore, G.S., 2008. Mansagar Lake: Past, Present and Future. In TAAL 2007. Jaipur: Proceedings of the 12th World Lake Conference, ed. M. Sengupta and R. Dalwani, Oct 29–Nov 02, 2007.Google Scholar
  43. Sørensen, E., and J. Torfing, eds. 2007. Theories of democratic network governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  44. TAAL. 2008. Jaipur Declaration. In TAAL 2007. Jaipur: Proceedings of the 12th World Lake Conference, ed. M. Sengupta and R. Dalwani, Oct 29–Nov 02, 2007.Google Scholar
  45. Torfing, J., B.G. Peters, J. Pierre, and E. Sørensen. 2012. Interactive Governance: Advancing the Paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Van Ast, J.A., J.J. Bouma, and M. Bal. 2013. Values Connecting Societies and Water Systems. In Water Governance as Connective Capacity, ed. J. Edelenbos, N. Bressers, and P. Scholten, 249–266. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Design ConsultantsAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations