Choroidal Melanoma

  • Carol L. Shields
  • Jerry A. Shields
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)


Melanoma is a dangerous malignancy that can involve the skin, the uvea, and the mucous membranes (Shields et al. 2015b; Shields et al. 2014; Shields and Shields 2015a; Kaliki and Shields 2017; Shields and Shields 2015b; Chang et al. 1998). In a review of 84,836 cases from the National Cancer Data Base, including cases diagnosed between 1985 and 1994, the percentages of melanomas arising from the skin, eye and adnexa, mucosa, and unknown primaries were 91, 5, 1, and 2%, respectively (Chang et al. 1998). In North America, it is estimated that approximately 2500 persons develop uveal melanoma annually (Kivela 2009). Worldwide, it is estimated that there are 7095 new cases of uveal melanoma annually with 4747 in White non-Hispanic, 738 in Hispanic, 1286 in Asian, and 316 in African patients (Kivela 2009). The incidence of uveal melanoma has been relatively stable over past decades.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol L. Shields
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jerry A. Shields
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ocular Oncology ServiceWills Eye HospitalPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyThomas Jefferson UnversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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