Global social and ecological problems, including degradation of ecosystem services at multiple scales, pose a major threat to human well-being and long-term survival. To address the various environmental challenges facing human societies at local, as well as global levels, it is critically important to develop an understanding of the opportunities for and consequences of individual and collective actions appropriate to social-ecological systems at the relevant scale(s). Additionally, greater understanding of the interconnections between constituent elements of complex social-ecological systems is vital in maintaining needed ecosystem services.
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