Developing Designer Microalgal Consortia: A Suitable Approach to Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

  • Shunni ZhuEmail author
  • Shuhao Huo
  • Pingzhong Feng


Nowadays, large amounts of improperly treated wastes have been discharged into water bodies, resulting in the reduction of water quality and the damage of aquatic ecosystems. One of the most severe issues is eutrophication phenomenon due to the excessive emission of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, most traditional approaches used for nutrient removal have complicated processes, high operation cost, and intensive energy demand. Alternatively, microalgal can provide a potential solution to the problems mentioned above. Microalgal-based technologies are low-cost and sustainable and recycle nutrients into biomass which would be converted to valuable goods. Since the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewaters are indispensable for microalgal growth, microalgal exhibit superior nutrient removal to other microorganisms. Nevertheless, it is difficult to maintain axenic cultures of microalgal during wastewater treatment processes. Therefore natural and artificial consortia including microalgal consortia or microalgal-bacterial consortia have been utilized in several studies. The application of these consortia in wastewater remediation has many advantages; for example, synergistic relationship between the microorganisms in the consortia can enhance nutrient uptake and resistance to adverse conditions. This chapter reviews wastewater characteristics as nutrient sources for microalgal, formation and construction of microalgal consortia, factors influencing nutrient removal and biomass generation by consortia, the progress of treatment of various wastewaters (including municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewater), and mechanisms involved in nutrient removal by consortia. Finally, the challenges of microalgal consortia research in bioremediation of wastewaters are also addressed.



This study was financially supported by the national key research and development program of China (2016YFB0601004), the Natural Science Foundation for research teams of Guangdong Province (2016A030312007), and Pearl River S&T Nova Program of Guangzhou (201610010155).


  1. Abed RMM, Köster J. The direct role of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria in the degradation of oil compounds. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad. 2005;55:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abinandan S, Shanthakumar S. Challenges and opportunities in application of microalgae (Chlorophyta) for wastewater treatment: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2015;52:123–32. Scholar
  3. Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98(12):2243–57. Scholar
  4. Aslan S, Kapdan IK. Batch kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater by algae. Ecol Eng. 2006;28:64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bai X, Acharya K. Removal of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan by the green alga Nannochloris sp. J Hazard Mater. 2016;315:70–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Barsanti L, Gualtieri P. Algae-anatomy, biochemistry and biotechnology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2006. p. 162–209.Google Scholar
  7. Basílico G, Cabo LD, Magdaleno A, et al. Poultry effluent bio-treatment with Spirodela intermedia, and Periphyton in Mesocosms with water recirculation. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2016;227:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beuckels A, Smolders E, Muylaert K. Nitrogen availability influences phosphorus removal in microalgae-based wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2015;77:98–106.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohutskyi P, Kligerman DC, Byers N, et al. Effects of inoculum size, light intensity, and dose of anaerobic digestion centrate on growth. Algal Res. 2016;19:278–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boonma S, Chaiklangmuang S, Chaiwongsar S, et al. Enhanced carbon dioxide fixation and bio-oil production of a microalgal consortium. Clean Soil Air Water. 2015;43:761–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borde X, Guieysse B, Delgado O, Muñoz R, Hatti-Kaul R, Nugier-Chauvin C, Patin H, Bo Mattiasson B. Synergistic relationship in algal-bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. Bioresour Technol. 2003;86:293–300.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Brenner K, You L, Arnold FH. Engineering microbial consortia: a new frontier in synthetic biology. Trends Biotechnol. 2008;26:483–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Cai T, Park SY, Li Y. Nutrient recovery from wastewater streams by microalgae: status and prospects. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2013;19:360–9. Scholar
  14. Calabrese EJ. Evidence that hormesis represents an “overcompensation” response to a disruption in homeostasis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1999;42(2):135–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chavan A, Mukherji S. Effect of co-contaminant phenol on performance of a laboratory-scale RBC with algal-bacterial biofilm treating petroleum hydrocarbon-rich wastewater. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2010;85:851–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen G, Zhao L, Qi Y. Enhancing the productivity of microalgae cultivated in wastewater toward biofuel production: a critical review. Appl Energy. 2015;137:282–91. Scholar
  17. Chinnasamy S, Bhatnagar A, Claxton R, Das KC. Biomass and bioenergy production potential of microalgal consortium in open and closed bioreactors using untreated carpet industry effluent as growth medium. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101(17):6751–60. Scholar
  18. Chiu SY, Kao CY, Chen TY, Chang YB, Kuo CM, Lin CS. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource. Bioresour Technol. 2015;184:179–89. Scholar
  19. Cho S, Luong TT, Lee D, et al. Reuse of effluent water from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in microalgae cultivation for biofuel production. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:8639–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christenson L, Sims R. Production and harvesting of microalgae for wastewater treatment, biofuels, and bioproducts. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29(6):686–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christer B, Lars-Anders H. The biology of lakes and ponds. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  22. Cuellar-Bermudez SP, Aleman-Nava GS, Chandra R, et al. Nutrients utilization and contaminants removal. A review of two approaches of algae and cyanobacteria in wastewater. Algal Res. 2017;24:438–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daims H, Lebedeva EV, Pjevac P, et al. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria. Nature. 2015;528:504.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Das DP, Baliarsingh N, Parida KM. Photo-oxidation of phenol over titania pillared zirconium phosphate and titanium phosphate. J Mol Catal A Chem. 2005;240:1–6.Google Scholar
  25. Davis TA, Volesky B, Mucci A. A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae. Water Res. 2003;37(18):4311–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. de Godos I, González C, Becares E. Simultaneous nutrients and carbon removal during pretreated swine slurry degradation in a tubular biofilm photobioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;82:187–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. de-Bashan LE, Bashan Y, Moreno M, et al. Increased pigment and lipid content, lipid variety and cell and population size of the microalgae Chlorella spp when co-immobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Can J Microbiol. 2002a;48:514–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. de-Bashan LE, Moreno M, Hernandez JP, Bashan Y. Removal of ammonium and phosphorus ions from synthetic wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris coimmobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Water Res. 2002b;36(12):2941–8. Scholar
  29. de-Bashan LE, Hernandez JP, Morey T. Microalgae growth-promoting bacteria as “helpers” for microalgae: a novel approach for removing ammonium and phosphorus from municipal wastewater. Water Res. 2004;38:466–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Dodds WK, Bouska WW, Eitzmann JL, Pilger TJ, Pitts KL, Riley AJ, Schloesser JT, Thornbrugh DJ. Eutrophication of U.S. freshwaters: analysis of potential economic damages. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43(1):12–9. Scholar
  31. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). National algal biofuels technology roadmap. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; 2010.Google Scholar
  32. Foster RA, Kuypers MM, Vagner T, et al. Nitrogen fixation and transfer in open ocean diatom-cyanobacterial symbioses. ISME J. 2011;5:1484–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Franco-Morgado M, Alcantara C, Noyola A, et al. A study of photosynthetic biogas upgrading based on a high rate algal pond under alkaline conditions. Sci Total Environ. 2017;592:419–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. García D, Alcántara C, Blanco S, et al. Enhanced carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal from domestic wastewater in a novel anoxic-aerobic photobioreactor coupled with biogas upgrading. Chem Eng J. 2017;313:424–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gonçalves AL, Pires JCM, Simoes M. A review on the use of microalgal consortia for wastewater treatment. Algal Res Biomass Biofuels Bioproducts. 2017;24:403–15. Scholar
  36. González-Fernández C, Molinuevo-Salces B, García-González MC. Nitrogen transformations under different conditions in open ponds by means of microalgae–bacteria consortium treating pig slurry. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102(2):960–6. Scholar
  37. Gonzalez-Fernandez C, Mahdy A, Ballesteros I, et al. Impact of temperature and photoperiod on anaerobic biodegradability of microalgae grown in urban wastewater. Int Biodeter Biodegr. 2016;106:16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gouveia L, Neves C, Sebastião D, et al. Effect of light on the production of bioelectricity and added-value microalgae biomass in a photosynthetic alga microbial fuel cell. Bioresour Technol. 2014;154:171–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Groudev SN, Georgiev PS, Komnitsas K. Treatment of waters contaminated with radioactive elements and toxic heavy metals by a natural wetland. In: Wetlands & remediation: an international conference; 1999.Google Scholar
  40. Guldhe A, Kumari S, Ramanna L, Ramsundar P, Singh P, Rawat I, Bux F. Prospects, recent advancements and challenges of different wastewater streams for microalgal cultivation. J Environ Manag. 2017;203:299–315. Scholar
  41. He Q, Yang H, Wu L, Hu C, et al. Effect of light intensity on physiological changes, carbon allocationand neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae. Bioresour Technol. 2015;191:219–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henze M, Comeau Y. Wastewater characterization. In: Henze M, van Loosdrecht MCM, Ekama GA, Brdjanovic D, editors. Biological wastewater treatment: principles modelling and design. London: IWA Publishing; 2008. p. 33–52.Google Scholar
  43. Higgins SN, Malkin SY, Howell ET, et al. An ecological review of Cladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J Phycol. 2008;44:839–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Hodges A, Fica Z, Wanlass J, VanDarlin J, Sims R. Nutrient and suspended solids removal from petrochemical wastewater via microalgal biofilm cultivation. Chemosphere. 2017;174:46–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu X, Li H, Luo S, et al. Thiol and pH dual-responsive dynamic covalent shell cross-linked micelles for triggered release of chemotherapeutic drugs. Polym Chem. 2013;4:695–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hultberg M, Bodin H, Ardal E. Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water. Environ Technol. 2016;37:893–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Huo S, Zhu F, Zou B, Xu L, Cui F, You W. A two-stage system coupling hydrolytic acidification with algal microcosms for treatment of wastewater from the manufacture of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Biotechnol Lett. 2018;40:689. Scholar
  48. Ibrahim WM, Karam MA, ElShahat RM. Biodegradation and utilization of organophosphorus pesticide malathion by cyanobacteria. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:392682.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Jämsä M, Lyncha F, Santana-Sánchez A, et al. Nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock potential of green alga UHCC00027 grown in municipal wastewater under Nordic conditions. Algal Res. 2017;26:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ji M-K, Yun H-S, Park Y-T, Kabra AN, Oh I-H, Choi J. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production. J Environ Manag. 2015;159:115–20. Scholar
  51. Johnson KR, Admassu W. Mixed algae cultures for low cost environmental compensation in cultures grown for lipid production and wastewater remediation. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2013;88:992–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Karya N, der Steen NV, Lens P. Photo-oxygenation to support nitrification in an algal–bacterial consortium treating artificial wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 2013;134:244–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Kim DG, La HJ, Ahn CY, et al. Harvest of Scenedesmus sp. with bioflocculant and reuse of culture medium for subsequent high-density cultures. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:3163–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim BH, Ramanan R, Cho DH, Oh HM, Kim HS. Role of rhizobium, a plant growth promoting bacterium, in enhancing algal biomass through mutualistic interaction. Biomass Bioenergy. 2014;69(3):95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koreivienė J, Valčiukas R, Karosienė J, et al. Testing of chlorella/Scenedesmus microalgal consortia for remediation of wastewater, CO2 mitigation and algae biomass feasibility for lipid production. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag. 2014;22:105–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kouzuma A, Watanabe K. Exploring the potential of algae/bacteria interactions. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015;33:125–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Krzemiṅska I, Piasecka A, Nosalewicz A, et al. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities. Bioresour Technol. 2015;196:72–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee K, Lee C. Effect of light/dark cycles on wastewater treatments by microalgae. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2001;6:194–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee J, Cho DH, Ramanan R, et al. Microalgae-associated bacteria play a key role in the flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresour Technol. 2013;131:195–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Li X, Xie Q. The study and application of algal-bacterial symbiotic system for sewage purification. J Gaungxi Univ National. 2006;12(3):112–7.Google Scholar
  61. Li WW, Yu HQ, Rittmann BE. Chemistry: reuse water pollutants. Nat News. 2015;528:29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li R, Zou C, Wan J, Huang X. Research of microalgae processing wastewater. Ind Water Treat. 2016;36(5):5–9.Google Scholar
  63. Liang Z, Liu Y, Ge F, Xu Y, Tao N, Peng F, Wong M. Efficiency assessment and pH effect in removing nitrogen and phosphorus by algae-bacteria combined system of Chlorella vulgaris and Bacillus licheniformis. Chemosphere. 2013;92(10):1383–9. Scholar
  64. Liotta L, Gruttadauria M, di Carlo G. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of phenolic substrates: catalysts activity. J Hazard Mater. 2009;162:588–606.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu J, Wu Y, Wu C, Muylaert K, Vyverman W, Yu H-Q, Muñoz R, Rittmann B. Advanced nutrient removal from surface water by a consortium of attached microalgae and bacteria: a review. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:1127–37. Scholar
  66. Lu H, Wan J, Li J, et al. Periphytic biofilm: a buffer for phosphorus precipitation and release between sediments and water. Chemosphere. 2016;144:2058–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Ma X, Ma L, Shi X, Ma Y. The research progress of sensitivity of microalgae to common antibiotics. Prog Microbiol Immunol. 2012;40(1):83–6.Google Scholar
  68. Madadi R, Pourbabaee AA, Tabatabaei M, Zahed MA, Naghavi MR. Treatment of petrochemical wastewater by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris. Int J Environ Res. 2016;10:555–60.Google Scholar
  69. Mandotra SK, Kumar P, Suseela MR, et al. Evaluation of fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of microalga Scenedesmus abundans under the influence of phosphorus, pH and light intensities. Bioresour Technol. 2016;201:222–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Manzoor M, Ma R, Shakir AH, Tabssum F, Qazi JI. Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan. Punjab Univ. J Zool. 2016;31(2):307–20.Google Scholar
  71. Markou G, Chatzipavlidis I, Georgakakis D. Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis) in olive-oil mill wastewater treated with sodium hypochlorite. Bioresour Technol. 2012;112:234–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Maza-Márquez P, Martinez-Toledo MV, Fenice M. Biotreatment of olive washing wastewater by a selected microalgal-bacterial consortium. Int Biodeter Biodegr. 2014;88:69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meza B, de-Bashan LE, Bashan Y. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris. Res Microbiol. 2015;166:72–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Min M, Wang L, Li Y, et al. Cultivating Chlorella sp. in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using centrate wastewater for microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrient removal. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;165:123–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Miyachi S, KANAI R, Mihara S. Metabolic roles of inorganic polyphosphates in Chlorella cells. Biochim Biophy Acta Gen Subj. 1964;93:625–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mu J, Ma H, Xiong Z. Algae fungus symbiotic system in the research and application of urban sewage treatment. J Wuyi Inst. 2005;24(2):64–7.Google Scholar
  77. Mujtaba G, Lee K. Treatment of real wastewater using co-culture of immobilized Chlorella vulgaris and suspended activated sludge. Water Res. 2017;120:174–84. Scholar
  78. Mujtaba G, Rizwan M, Lee K. Simultaneous removal of inorganic nutrients and organic carbon by symbiotic co-culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudomonas putida. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2015;20(6):1114–22. Scholar
  79. Mulbry W, Kondrad S, Pizarro C, et al. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:8137–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Munoz R, Guieysse B. Algal bacterial processes for the treatment of hazardous contaminants: a review. Water Res. 2006;40:2799–815.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Natrah FM, Bossier P, Sorgeloos P, Yusoff FM, Defoirdt T. Significance of microalgal-bacterial interactions for aquaculture. Rev Aquac. 2014;6:48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nicholson FA, Smith SR, Alloway BJ, et al. An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales. Sci Total Environ. 2003;311:205–19.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Oswald WJ. Productivity of algae in sewage disposal. Sol Energy. 1973;15(1):107–17. Scholar
  84. Oswald W, Gotaas H, Golueke C, Kellen W, Gloyna E, Hermann E. Algae in waste treatment. Sewage Ind Waste. 1957;29(4):437–57.Google Scholar
  85. Pan X, Chang F, Kang L, et al. Effects of gibberellin A3 on growth and microcystin production in Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyta). J Plant Physiol. 2008;165(16):1691–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Park Y, Je K-W, Lee K, Jung S-E, Choi T-J. Growth promotion of Chlorella ellipsoidea by co-inoculation with Brevundimonas sp isolated from the microalga. Hydrobiologia. 2008;598:219–28. Scholar
  87. Phang SM, Miah MS, Yeoh BG, et al. Spirulina cultivation in digested sago starch factory wastewater. J Appl Phycol. 2000;12:395–400.Google Scholar
  88. Pinto G, Pollio A, Previtera L. Removal of low molecular weight phenols from olive oil mill wastewater using microalgae. Biotechnol Lett. 2013;25:1657–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Powell N, Shilton AN, Pratt AN. Factors influencing luxury uptake of phosphorus by microalgae in waste stabilization ponds. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:5958–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Qin L, Wang ZM, Sun Y, Shu Q, Feng P, Zhu L, Xu J, Yuan Z. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016;23(9):8379–87. Scholar
  91. Qin L, Wei D, Wang ZM, Alam MA. Advantage assessment of mixed culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Yarrowia lipolytica for treatment of liquid digestate of yeast industry and cogeneration of biofuel feedstock. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2018:1–14. Scholar
  92. Quijano G, Arcila JS, Buitrón G. Microalgal-bacterial aggregates: applications and perspectives for wastewater treatment. Biotechnol Adv. 2017;35(6):772–81. Scholar
  93. Ramanan R, Kim BH, Cho DH, et al. Algae-bacteria interactions: evolution, ecology and emerging applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2016;34:14–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Rawat I, Ranjith Kumar R, Mutanda T, et al. Dual role of microalgae: phycoremediation of domestic wastewater and biomass production for sustainable biofuels production. Appl Energy. 2011;88:3411–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Renuka N, Sood A, Ratha SK, Prasanna R, Ahluwalia AS. Evaluation of microalgal consortia for treatment of primary treated sewage effluent and biomass production. J Appl Phycol. 2013;25(5):1529–37. Scholar
  96. Riaño B, Molinuevo B, García-González M. Treatment of fish processing wastewater with microalgae-containing microbiota. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:10829–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Risgaard-Petersen N, Nicolaisen MH, Revsbech NP. Competition between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and benthic microalgae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5528–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sato T, Qadir M, Yamamoto S. Global, regional, and country level need for data on wastewater generation, treatment, and use. Agric Water Manag. 2013;130:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schmidt JJ, Gagnon GA, Jamieson RC. Microalgae growth and phosphorus uptake in wastewater under simulated cold region conditions. Ecol Eng. 2016;95:588–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sonune A, Ghate R. Developments in wastewater treatment methods. Desalination. 2004;167(1–3):55–63. Scholar
  101. Sriram S, Seenivasan R. Biophotonic perception on Desmodesmus sp. VIT growth, lipid and carbohydrate content. Bioresour Technol. 2015;198:626–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Stumn W, Morgan JJ. Aquatic chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1996. p. 744.Google Scholar
  103. Su Y, Mennerich A, Urban B. Municipal wastewater treatment and biomass accumulation with a wastewater-born and settleable algal-bacterial culture. Water Res. 2011;45(11):3351–8. Scholar
  104. Su Y, Mennerich A, Urban B. Synergistic cooperation between wastewater-born algae and activated sludge for wastewater treatment: influence of algae and sludge inoculation ratios. Bioresour Technol. 2012;105:67–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Subashchandrabose SR, Ramakrishnan B, Megharaj M, et al. Consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria: biotechnological potential. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:896–907.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Tan X, Zhang Y, Yang L, et al. Outdoor cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the effluent of anaerobically. Bioresour Technol. 2016;200:606–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tate JJ, Gutierrez-Wing MT, Rusch KA, Benton MG. The effects of plant growth substances and mixed cultures on growth and metabolite production of green algae chlorella sp.: a review. J Plant Growth Regul. 2013;32(2):417–28. Scholar
  108. Thawechai T, Cheirsilp B, Louhasakul Y, et al. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies. Bioresour Technol. 2016;219:139–49.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Unnithan VV, Unc A, Smith GB. Mini-review: a priori considerations for bacteria–algae interactions in algal biofuel systems receiving municipal wastewaters. Algal Res. 2014;4:35–40. Scholar
  110. Vasseur C, Bougaran G, Garnier M, et al. Carbon conversion efficiency and population dynamics of a marine algae-bacteria consortium growing on simplified synthetic digestate: first step in a bioprocess coupling algal production and anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol. 2012;119:79–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Vílchez C, Garbayo I, Lobato MV, et al. Microalgae-mediated chemicals production and wastes removal. Enzym Microb Technol. 1997;20(8):562–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang M, Yang H, Ergas SJ, van der Steen P. A novel shortcut nitrogen removal process using an algal-bacterial consortium in a photo-sequencing batch reactor (PSBR). Water Res. 2015;87:38–48. Scholar
  113. Wang Y, Ho S-H, Cheng C-L, Guo W-Q, Nagarajan D, Ren N-Q, Lee D-J, Chang J-S. Perspectives on the feasibility of using microalgae for industrial wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol. 2016;222:485–97. Scholar
  114. Wang R, Cheng X, Zeng X. Mechanisms and applications of bacterial-algal symbiotic systems for pollutant removal from wastewater. Acta Sci Circumst. 2018;38(1):13–22.Google Scholar
  115. Xing L, Ma Q, Li H, Zhang J. Advanced wastewater treatment with algae technique. Water Purif Technol. 2009;28(6):44–9.Google Scholar
  116. Xiong J, Kurade MB, Abou-Shanab RAI, et al. Biodegradation of carbamazepine using freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus and the determination of its metabolic fate. Bioresour Technol. 2016;205:183–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Yin X, Qiang Z, Ben W, et al. Biodegradation of sulfamethazine by activated sludge: lab-scale study. J Environ Eng. 2014;140(7):345–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang J, Hou H, Tonf S. Research progress of interaction between microalgae and bacteria. Acta Laser Biol Sin. 2016;25:385–90.Google Scholar
  119. Zhang H, Sun H, Wang X, Wu Y, Yao X, Tang J, Ge X. Research progress on livestock wastewater treatment by microalgae and microbial algae symbiosis system. Chin J Anim Sci. 2017;53(8):15–20.Google Scholar
  120. Zhao T. The effect of temperature on biomacromolecule, total lipid and fatty acid content and composition in four microalgae. Qingdao University of Science and Technology; 2016.Google Scholar
  121. Zhi T, Cheng L, Xu X, Zhang L, Chen H. Advances on heavy metals removal from aqueous solution by algae. Prog Chem. 2011;23(8):1782–94.Google Scholar
  122. Zhou D, Niu S, Xiong Y, Yang Y, Dong S. Microbial selection pressure is not a prerequisite for granulation: dynamic granulation and microbial community study in a complete mixing bioreactor. Bioresour Technol. 2014;161:102–8. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guangzhou Institute of Energy ConversionChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina

Personalised recommendations