Identification of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester in Palm Oil Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer

  • Sarina SulaimanEmail author


Biodiesel or Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) is a non-toxic, biodegradable alternative fuel that is easy to produce and process from vegetable oil or animal fats. In this chapter, identification of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester in palm oil biodiesel using GCMS has been studied. The main component existed in FAME are Caprylic acid C8:0, Capric acid C10:0, Myristic acid C14:0, Palmitic acid C16:0, Stearic acid C18:0, Oleic acid C18:1, Arachidate acid C20:0 and Docosanoic acid C22:0.


Fatty acid methyl ester Palm oil Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer Biodiesel Transesterification Vegetable oil Coconut waste Egg shell Heterogeneous catalyst Chromatogram 



This research was funded by FRGS grant (FRGS 13-079-0320) from the Government of Malaysia.


  1. Balakrishnan K, Olutoye M, Hameed B (2013) Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst. Bioresour Technol 128:788–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boey P-L, Maniam GP, Hamid SA (2009) Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using waste mud crab (Scylla serrata) shell as a heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresour Technol 100(24):6362–6368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chakraborty R, Das SK (2012) Optimization of biodiesel synthesis from waste frying soybean oil using fish scale-supported Ni catalyst. Ind Eng Chem Res 51(25):8404–8414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Darnoko D, Cheryan M (2000) Kinetics of palm oil transesterification in a batch reactor. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77(12):1263–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Li Q, Zheng L, Cai H, Garza E, Yu Z, Zhou S (2011) From organic waste to biodiesel: black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible. Fuel 40:1545–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Maycock JH (1987) Extraction of crude palm oil. In: Gunstone FD (ed) Palm oil, vol 15. Wiley, New York, pp 29–38 Cril Rep Appi ChemGoogle Scholar
  7. Mofijur M, Masjuki H, Kalam M, Atabani A, Shahabuddin M, Palash S, Hazrat M (2013) Effect of biodiesel from various feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 28:441–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nakatani N, Takamori H, Takeda K, Sakugawa H (2009) Transesterification of soybean oil using combusted oyster shell waste as a catalyst. Bioresour Technol 100(3):1510–1513. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Noiroj K, Intarapong P, Luengnaruemitchai A, Jai-In S (2009) A comparative study of KOH/Al 2 O 3 and KOH/NaY catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification from palm oil. Renew Energy 34(4):1145–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ong H, Mahlia T, Masjuki H, Norhasyima R (2011) Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(8):3501–3515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Singh SP, Singh D (2010) Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(1):200–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Veljković VB, Stamenković OS, Todorović ZB, Lazić ML, Skala DU (2009) Kinetics of sunflower oil methanolysis catalyzed by calcium oxide. Fuel 88(9):1554–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Viriya-Empikul N, Krasae P, Puttasawat B, Yoosuk B, Chollacoop N, Faungnawakij K (2010) Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts. Bioresour Technol 101(10):3765–3767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wei Z, Xu C, Li B (2009) Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 100(11):2883–2885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yan S, Dimaggio C, Mohan S, Kim M, Salley SO, Ng KS (2010) Advancements in heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel synthesis. Top Catal 53(11–12):721–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations