Advertisement

Skim Latex Serum as an Alternative Nutrition for Microbial Growth

  • Vivi Mardina
  • Faridah YusofEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Malaysia is one of the biggest producers of natural rubber. The fresh latex, tapped from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), known as field latex, is a cloudy white and viscous liquid containing rubber fraction and non-rubber components. As a basic raw material in rubber processing, fresh field latex undergoes a series of procedures during its conversion to either dry rubber, or high concentrated latex. To prepare high concentrated latex, ammonia is usually added to the field latex upon reaching the factories to prevent coagulation. Ammoniated latex will then undergo centrifugation which yield high concentrated latex and a by-product named ‘skim latex’. Skim latex is considered as low value by-product and usually discarded as waste effluent. However, it must be first treated in the oxidation treatment pond, before the clearer water can be released into the main waterways. In Malaysia, the discharged water must meet the strict requirements of MS ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Eventually, the rubber manufacturers have to spend a lot of money for waste management and effluent treatment of skim latex. Therefore, utilization of this wasteful skim latex is one of the economic saving measures and may minimize the environmental problems. This chapter aims at delibrating the use of the serum of skim latex as an alternative nutrition for culturing microorganism. As a model microorganism, this study has selected to use Bacillus lichenformis (ATCC 12759). Skim latex serum was used as the basal media, supplemented by some selected medium composition (lactose, galactose, casein, KH2PO4, MgSO4 and LB broth) for the production of extracellular protease. At the end of the study, it was demonstrated that skim latex serum is able to fulfill a criteria as an efficient culture media due to its abundance, low cost, stable in quality and having a stimulatory effect on bacterial growth. Therefore, valorization of this wasteful skim latex into protease enzyme is hoped to be an introduction for further inventions relating to processes suitable for microbial culturing.

Keywords

Hevea brasiliensis Skim latex Serum Concentrated latex Bacillus lichenformis Protease Casein Tyrosine Bradford method Microbial growth Nutrition Natural rubber Effluent 

References

  1. Ahmed SA, Abdel Fattah AF (2010) Production of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 21415 alkaline protease in batch, repeated batch and continuous culture. Malays J Microbiol 6(2):156–160Google Scholar
  2. Akcan N (2012) Production of extracellular protease in submerged fermentation by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 12759. Afr J Biotechnol 11(7):1729–1735Google Scholar
  3. Bhunia B, Basak B, Dey A (2012) A review on production of serine alkaline protease by Bacillus spp. Biochem Technol 3(4):448–457Google Scholar
  4. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chi TS, Tung LL, Jong CS (2001) Purification and characterization of black porgy muscle Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Zool Stud 40(2):84–90Google Scholar
  6. Eifediyi EK, Ihenyen JO, Ojiekpon IF (2012) Evaluation of the effects of rubber factory effluent on soil nutrients, growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Niger Ann Nat Sci 12(1):21–28Google Scholar
  7. Hien NN, Thao LT (2012) Situation of wastewater treatment of natural rubber latex processing in the Southeastern region, Vietnam. J Vietnamese Environ 2(2):58–64Google Scholar
  8. Ishizaki A (1991) Bacteria culture and fermentation using the same. United State Patent, 5,026,641Google Scholar
  9. Ishizaki A, Koike K, Noguchi K, Ando Y (1995) Natural rubber serum powder, an enhancer for the growth of Bifidobacterium. Fac Agric Kyushu Univ 39(3–4):125–129Google Scholar
  10. Ismail AI, Mohd Noor Z (2011) Effect of spray drying on protein content of natural rubber serum (NRS). IIUM Eng J 12(4):61–65Google Scholar
  11. Iyagba MA, Adoki A, Sokari TG (2008) Testing biological methods to treat rubber effluent. Afr J Agric Res 3(6):448–454Google Scholar
  12. Jayanthy T, Sankaranarayanan PE (2005) Measurement of dry rubber content in latex using microwave technique. Meas Sci Rev 5(3):50–54Google Scholar
  13. John CK (1978) Waste originating from agriculture and forestry. Lecture presented at the FAO/SIDA workshop on aquatic pollution in relation to protection of living resources, scientific and administrative basis for management measures. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Aquatic Ecology, pp 1–458Google Scholar
  14. Kiddle JJ (1995) Quebrachitol: a versatile building block in the construction of naturally occurring bioactive materials. Chem Rev 95(6):2189–2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kresnawaty I, Andanawarih S, Suharyanto, Tri-Panji (2008) Optimization and purification of IAA produced by Rhizobium sp in latex serum media supplemented with tryptophan from chicken manure. Menara Perkebunan 76(2):74–82Google Scholar
  16. Mahat MS, MacRae IC (1991) Rhizopus oligosporus grown on natural rubber waste serum for production of single cell protein: a preliminary study. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 8(1):63–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mardina V, Yusof F, Alam MZ (2015) Statistical optimization of physichochemical factors for protease production by Bacillus licheniformis on skim latex serum effluent fortified media, Journal of Engineering Sciences and Technology. Special Issue 6 on The 27th Symposium of Malaysian Chemical Engineers (SOMChe 2014) in conjunction with the the 1st Regional Symposium of Chemical Engineering (RSCE 2014), pp 42–52Google Scholar
  18. McGavack J, Binmore GB (1930) Method for recovering quebrachitol from rubber latex serum, US Patent 1758616Google Scholar
  19. Mohamed N, Yusof F (2014) Experimental design and statistical analysis of protein buffer to purify hydrolases from the skim latex of Hevea brasiliensis. Adv Environ Biol 8(3):672–679Google Scholar
  20. Nadeem M, Qazi JI, Baig S, Syed QA (2008) Effect of medium composition on commercial important alkaline protease production by Bacillus licheniformis N-2. Food Technol Biotechnol 46(4):388–394Google Scholar
  21. Nuradibah MA (2012) Preliminary study on the production of bioprotein from skim latex serum and process growth optimization. Retrieved November, 15, 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/27661
  22. Ochigbo SS, Luyt AS (2011) Mechanical and morphological properties of film based on ultrasound treated titanium dioxide dispersion/natural rubber latex. Int J Lamposite Mat 1(1):7–13Google Scholar
  23. Ochigbo SS, Araga RAL, Suleiman MAT (2011) Comparison of two creaming methods for preparation of natural rubber latex concentrates from field latex. Afr J Agric Res 6(12):2916–2919Google Scholar
  24. Orhue ER, Osaigbovo AU (2013) The effect of rubber effluent on some chemical properties of soil and early growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Bayero J Pure Appl Sci 6(1):164–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Padmapriya B, Rajeswari T, Nandita R, Raj F (2012) Production and purification of alkaline serine protease from marine Bacillus species and its application in detergent industry. Eur J Appl Sci 4(1):21–26Google Scholar
  26. Rattanaphan O, Danwanichakul D, Danwanichakul P (2012) Reduction of protein content in skim rubber via both extractions in skim latex and from rubber films. In: 1st Mae Fah Luang University International Conference, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  27. Sevinc N, Demirkan E (2011) Production of protease by Bacillus sp. N-40 isolated from soil and its enzymatic properties. Biol Environ Sci 5(14):95–103Google Scholar
  28. Shafer WM, Katzif S, Bowers S (2002) Tailoring an antibacterial peptide of human lysosomal cathepsin G to enhance its broad-spectrum action against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Curr Pharm Des 8(9):695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Siswanto (1999) Characterization of protease from Bacillus sp isolated from natural rubber coagulum. Menara Perkebunan 67(2):26–36Google Scholar
  30. Soedjanaatmadja UMS, Subroto T, Beintema JJ (1995) The effluent of natural rubber factories is enriched in the antifungal protein hevein. Bioresour Technol 53:39–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stanbury PF, Whiteker A, Hall SJ (2003) Principle of fermentation technology, 2nd edn. Butterworth–Heinemann, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Tan HT, Pillai KP, Barry DJ (1979) Possible utilization of rubber factory effluent on cropland. In: Proceedings of Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, p 154Google Scholar
  33. Tang SN, Fakhrul-Razi A, Hassan MA, Karim M (1999) Feasibility study on the utilization of rubber latex effluent for producing bacterial biopolymers. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 27(5–6):411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tata SJ, Beintema JJ, Balabaskaran S (1983) The lysozyme of Hevea brasiliensis latex: isolation, purification, enzyme kinetics and a partial amino acid sequence. J Rubb Res Inst Malaysia 31:35–48Google Scholar
  35. Tri-Panji, Suharyanto (2001) Optimization media from low-cost nutrient sources for growing Spirulina plantesis and caretenoid production. Menara Perkebunan 69(1):18–28Google Scholar
  36. Tunga R, Banerjee R, Bhattacharyya BC (2001) Optimization of some additives to improve protease production under solid state fermentation. Indian J Exp Biol 39:1144–1148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Veerasamy D, Ismail AF (2012) Rehabilitation of fouled membrane from natural rubber skim latex concentration through membrane autopsy and ultra-sonication enhanced membrane cleaning procedure. Desalination 286:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Veerasamy D, Sulaiman NM, Nambiar J, Aziz Y (2008) Environment friendly natural rubber latex concentration by membrane separation technology. Retrieved June 28, 2011. http://www.membrane.unsw.edu.au/imstec03/content/papers/IND/imstec2008.pdf
  39. Yousef AA, Carlstrom C (2003) Chapter 1: Basic microbiological techniques. In: Food microbiology. Wiley, New York, pp 5–12Google Scholar
  40. Yusof F, Abdullah L (1997) Purification and characterization of superoxide dismutase from Hevea brasiliensis latex. In: Proceeding of the 9th national biotechnology seminar, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, pp 208–212Google Scholar
  41. Yusof F, Ward MA, Walker JM (1998) Purification and characterisation of an inhibitor of rubber biosynthesis from C-serum of Hevea brasiliensis latex. J Rubber Res 1(2):95–110Google Scholar
  42. Yusof F, Amid A, Jimat DN, Nayan MY, Osman NO, Abdullah NAH (2006) Recovery of useful protease, cathepsin G, from the waste skim latex serum of Hevea brasiliensis, Kulliyyah of Engineering Research and Innovation Exhibition (KERIE 2006), IIUMGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations