The swelling deformation tests of Tsukinuno bentonite and its sand-mixtures were performed in distilled water and NaCl solution with different concentration. The results showed the swelling strain decreased with the increase in the vertical pressure, the salt concentration, and the sand content in the mixtures. The swelling properties of the bentonite can be characterized by a unique fractal em-pe relation, where the effective stress pe incorporating with osmotic suction was applied to take the effect of salinity into consideration. And the coefficient K, as the physical constant of bentonite can be estimated by diffuse double layer (DDL) model in the case of distilled water. The applicability of the fractal em-pe relation has been confirmed by comparing the predicted results with swelling deformation tests on Tsukinuno bentonites in various salt solution concentrations.
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The National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41630633 and No. 41702311) and the Nature Science Foundation of Anhui province of China (Grant No. 1708085QE99) are acknowledged for their financial support.
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