Advertisement

Inducing Hydrophobicity to Improve Long Term Engineering Performance of Kaolinite Clay

  • Aisha M. S. Haquie
  • Megan L. Hart
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Engineered compacted earthen liners are significantly important for the disposal of municipal and industrial solid wastes. Compacted clay liners strain during seasonal wet and dry fluctuations, providing pathways for leachate to contaminate surrounding soil and groundwater. Although geosynthetic clay liners are utilized, GCLs may be infeasible in areas that undergo cyclic wet and dry seasonal or groundwater fluctuations. This study focuses on improving the properties of kaolinite silty-clay by minimizing permeability through induced hydrophobicity. Siloxane, a water repellent material, was mixed with kaolinite soil at concentrations between 0.5% to 20% by weight to determine optimal induced hydrophobicity for retention of mass during cyclic wetting and drying. Hydrophobicity was measured using sessile drop methodology and water drop penetration time. Fine particles are preferentially influenced, resulting in soil gradation differences on the portion passing No. 200 sieve. Resistance to water penetration was improved, resulting in greater adherence between soil particles without inducing any crystalline structural changes. Volume losses and moisture absorption from wetting and drying cycles were reduced in optimally treated siloxanated clay molds, as compared to untreated samples. These experimental results indicate siloxane treated kaolinite clay possess improved engineering characteristics, and have potential to improve the useful lifetime of clay liners.

Keywords

Kaolinite Siloxane Hydrophobic Contact angle Grain size Wetting and drying cycle SEM 

References

  1. ASTM D1193-06 (2011) Standard Specification for Reagent Water, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  2. ASTM D2216-10 (2010) Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  3. ASTM D2488-17 (2017) Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  4. ASTM D422-63(2007)e2 (2007) Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (Withdrawn 2016), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  5. ASTM D559/ D559 M-15 (2015) Standard Test Methods for Wetting and Drying Compacted Soil-Cement Mixtures, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  6. ASTM D854-14 (2014) Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. www.astm.org
  7. Choi Y, Choo H, Yun TS, Lee C, Lee W (2016) Engineering characteristics of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin. Materials 9(12):978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cuevas J, Leguey S, Garralón A, Rastrero MR, Procopio JR, Sevilla MT, SánchezJiménez N, Abad RR, Garrido A (2009) Behavior of kaolinite and illite-based clays as landfill barriers. Appl Clay Sci 42(3):497–509Google Scholar
  9. Daniels JL, Hourani MS (2009) Soil improvement with organo-silane. In: Advances in ground improvement: research to practice in the United States and China, pp 217–224Google Scholar
  10. Daniels JL, Hourani MS, Harper LS (2009) Organo-silane chemistry: a water repellent technology for coal ash and soils. In: Proceedings, pp 4–7Google Scholar
  11. de Jonge LW, Jacobsen OH, Moldrup P (1999) Soil water repellency: effects of water content, temperature, and particle size. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63(3):437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamilton JJ (1980) Behavior of expansive soils in western Canada. In: Expansive Soils, pp 815–833. ASCEGoogle Scholar
  13. King MK (2005) Expansive soil and expansive clay. https://geology.com/articles/expansive-soil.shtml. Accessed 26 Mar 2018
  14. Lourenço SDN, Woche SK, Bachmann J, Saulick Y (2015) Wettability of crushed air-dried minerals. Géotechnique Letters 5(3):173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. NRCS - Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/OSD_Docs/G/GREENTON.html. Accessed on 26 Mar 2018
  16. Rasband WS (1997) ImageJ, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/, 1997–2018
  17. Suter GW, Luxmoore RJ, Smith ED (1993) Compacted soil barriers at abandoned landfill sites are likely to fail in the long term. J Environ Qual 22(2):217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. TAPPI (1997) T 558 om-97 Surface wettability and absorbency of sheeted materials using an automated contact angle testerGoogle Scholar
  19. Tong KW (2000) Introduction to clay minerals and soils. http://www.oakton.edu/user/4/billtong/eas100/clays.htm. Accessed 26 Mar 2018
  20. Wijewardana NS, Kawamoto K, Moldrup P, Komatsu T, Kurukulasuriya LC, Priyankara NH (2015) Characterization of water repellency for hydrophobized grains with different geometries and sizes. Environ Earth Sci 74(7):5525–5539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. The State Duma (2009) Technical regulations on the safety of buildings and structures, The State Duma, Moscow, RussiaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Missouri Kansas CityKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations