Syntheses and Characterization of Titanium Encapsulated Alumino-Silicate Microspheres (TiAS300/500): Promising Materials for the Removal of Azo Dyes from Groundwater

  • Venkataraman SivasankarEmail author
  • Kiyoshi Omine
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


The present research is concerned with the abatement of dye contamination in groundwater due to certain dye molecules such as Eriochrome black – T (C20H12N3O7SNa, EBT), Calcon carboxylic acid (C21H14N2O7S, CCD) and Calcon (C20H13N2NaO5S, CD) using Titanium encapsulated aluminosilicate microspheres (TiAS300 and TiAS500). Removal efficiency of dye as a function of synthetic dye solutions (EBT, CCD and CD) at various concentrations separately and in the form of 1:1, 2:3 and 3:2 mixtures was investigated at an optimized pH 3 for an equilibrium time of just 20 min. The dye uptake of Ti encapsulated aluminosilicate (AS) microspheres was more efficient than that of virgin AS microspheres by 18 times. The performance of TiAS300 and TiAS500 in the presence of other interfering anions such as nitrate, fluoride and sulfate was quite promising. It was apparent that the use of thermally regenerated adsorbent had to be more in quantity depending upon the cycle number for the complete removal of EBTD as compared with the freshly used TiAS quantities. The characterization studies such as SEM and XRD for the virgin, EBTD loaded and thermally regenerated adsorbents were done. The various stretching frequencies of groups present in the adsorbent materials were confirmed by FTIR. The morphological change from mullite to sillimanite during the loading process and distortion of spherical morphology in Titanium encapsulated ASMS due to hydrothermal process at 300 °C and 500 °C were well ascertained by XRD and SEM studies.


Titanium encapsulated AS Azo dye removal XRD SEM 



The authors thank Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science for the financial assistance through the Grants – in – Aid for Scientific Research (ID No. 16544).


  1. 1.
    Suttiponparnit K, Jiang J, Sahu M, Suvachittanont S, Charinpanitkul T, Biswas P (2011) Role of surface area, primary particle size, and crystal phase on titanium dioxide nanoparticle dispersion properties. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:27Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ejhieha AN, Khorsandia M (2010) Photodecolorization of Eriochrome Black T using NiS–P zeolite as a heterogeneous catalyst. J Hazard Mater 176:629–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iqbal MJ, Ashiq MN (2007) Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal. J Hazard Mater B139:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abdelkader E, Nadjia L, Rose-Noelle V (2016) Adsorption of Congo red azo dye on nanosized SnO2derived from sol-gel method. Int J Ind Chem 7(1):53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geotechnical Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations