Advertisement

Micro-Macro Effects in Bentonite Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Disposal

  • Pierre Delage
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

This paper summarizes the findings of various investigations carried out for some time in the research group on unsaturated soils at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. It focusses in more details on the links that can be made between nano, micro, and meso scale phenomena, and the macroscopic response of various Engineered Barrier Systems made up of bentonite, used in various concepts of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. Meso-scale observations using X-Ray microtomography usefully complete some findings established by using more standard techniques of microstructure investigation, like scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology of sand-bentonite and pellet-bentonite powder mixtures can be better understood, together with their changes during hydration. Also, nano-scale mechanisms that govern the hydration of smectites through the consecutive and ordered placement of layers of water molecules along the faces of the smectite minerals are useful for a better understanding of the macroscopic response of Engineered Barrier Systems submitted to hydration under constrained volume conditions.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to acknowledge the contribution of his co-workers: Dr. S. Saba, Dr. A. Molinero-Guerra, Dr. A.M. Tang, Dr. M. Bornert, Dr. P. Aimedieu, and Prof. Y.J. Cui from Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and Dr. N. Mokni and Dr. J.D. Barnichon from IRSN, the French expert organization on radioactive waste disposal.

References

  1. Barnichon JD, Dick P, Bauer C (2012) The SEALEX in situ experiments: performance tests of repository seals. In: Qian Z (ed) Harmonising rock engineering and the environment. Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 1391–1394Google Scholar
  2. Bérend I, Cases JM, François M, Uriot JP, Michot LJ, Masion A, Thomas F (1995) Mechanism of adsorption and desorption of water vapour by homoionic montmorillonites: 2. The Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+and Cs+ exchanged forms. Clays Clay Min 43:324–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bossart P, Jaeggi D, Nussbaum C (2017) Experiments on thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri rock laboratory, Switzerland. 9(3):502–510Google Scholar
  4. Cases JM, Bérend I, François M, Uriot JP, Michot LJ, Thomas F (1997) Mechanism of adsorption and desorption of water vapour by homoionic montmorillonite: 3. The Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ exchanged forms. Clays Clay Miner 45:8–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delage P, Audiguier M, Cui YJ, Howat MD (1996) Microstructure of a compacted silt. Can Geotech J 33(1):150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Delage P, Marcial D, Cui YJ, Ruiz X (2006) Ageing effects in a compacted bentonite: a microstructure approach. Géotechnique 56(5):291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Devineau K, Bihannic I, Michot L, Villiéras F, Masrouri F, Cuisinier O, Fragneto G, Michau N (2006) In situ neutron diffraction analysis of the influence of geometric confinement of crystalline swelling of montmorillonite. Appl Clay Sci 31(1–2):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dixon DA, Gray MN, Graham J (1996) Swelling and hydraulic properties of bentonites from Japan, Canada and USA. In: Proceedings of the second international congress on environmental geotechnics, Osaka, Japan, pp 5–8Google Scholar
  9. Ferrage E, Lanson B, Sakharov BA, Drits VA (2005) Investigation of smectite hydration properties by modeling experimental X-ray diffraction patterns: part I. Montmorillonite hydration properties. Am Mineral 90:1358–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferrage E, Kirk CA, Cressey G, Cuadros J (2007) Dehydration of Ca-montmorillonite at the crystal scale. Part I: structure evolution. Am Mineral 92:994–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Imbert C, Villar MV (2006) Hydro-mechanical response of a bentonite pellets-powder mixture upon infiltration. Appl Clay Sci 32(3–4):197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karnland O, Nilsson U, Weber H, Wersin P (2008) Sealing ability of Wyoming bentonite pellets foreseen as buffer material-Laboratory results. Phys. Chem. Earth 33:S472–S475. Parts A/B/CGoogle Scholar
  13. Komine H, Ogata N (1992) Swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. In: Proceedings of the 7th international conference on expansive soils, Dallas, USA, pp 216–222Google Scholar
  14. Lloret A, Villar MV, Sanchez M, Gens A, Pintado X, Alonso EE (2003) Mechanical behaviour of heavily compacted bentonite under high suction changes. Géotechnique 53(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Menaceur H, Delage P, Tang AM, Talandier J (2016) The status of water in swelling shales: an insight from the water retention properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(12):4571–4586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Méring J, Glaeser R (1954) Sur le rÖle de la valence des cations échangeables dans la montmorillonite. Bulletin de la Société Francaise de Minéralogie et Cristallographie 77:519–530Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell JK, Soga K (2005) Fundamentals of soil behaviour. WileyGoogle Scholar
  18. Mokni N, Barnichon JD (2016) Hydro-mechanical analysis of SEALEX in situ tests—im- pact of technological gaps on long term performance of repository seals. Eng Geol 205:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Molinero-Guerra A, Mokni N, Delage P, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Aimedieu P, Bernier F, Bornert M (2017) In-depth characterisation of a mixture composed of powder/pellets MX80 bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 135:538–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Molinero-Guerra A, Cui YJ, Mokni N, Delage P, Bornert M, Aimedieu P, Tang AM, Bernier F (2018) Investigation of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a pellet/powder MX80 bentonite mixture using an infiltration column. Eng Geol 243:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mooney RW, Keenan AC, Wood LA (1952) Adsorption of water vapor by montmorillonite. II. Effect of exchangeable ions and lattice swelling as measured from X-ray diffraction. J Am Chem Soc 74:1371–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Norrish K (1954) The swelling of montmorillonite. Discuss Faraday Soc 18:120–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Push R (1982) Mineral-water interactions and their influence on the physical behavior of highly compacted Na-bentonite. Can Geotech J 19(3):381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Push R (1999) Microstructural evolution of buffer. Eng Geol 54(1–2):33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saba S, Delage P, Lenoir N, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Barnichon JD (2014a) Further insight into the microstructure of compacted bentonite–sand mixture. Eng Geol 168:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saba S, Barnichon JD, Cui YJ, Tang AM, Delage P (2014b) Microstructure and anisotropic swelling behaviour of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saiyouri N, Tessier D, Hicher PY (2004) Experimental study of swelling in unsaturated compacted clays. Clay Miner 39:469–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tessier D, Dardaine M, Beaumont A et al (1998) Swelling pressure and microstructure of an activated swelling clay with temperature. Clay Miner 33(2):255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tovey NK (1971) A selection of scanning electron micrographs of clays. CUED/C-SOILS/TR5a. University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Van Geet M, Volckaert G, Roels S (2005) The use of microfocus X-ray computed to mography in characterising the hydration of a clay pellet/powder mixture. Appl Clay Sci 29(2):73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Villar MV (2002) Thermo-hydro-mechanical characterisation of a bentonite from Cabo de Gata. A study applied to the use of bentonite as sealing material in high level radioactive waste repositories. Publicación Técnica ENRESA 01/2002, Madrid, 258 pGoogle Scholar
  32. Villar MV, Gómez-Espina R, Gutiérrez-Nebot V (2012) Basal spacings of smectite in compacted bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 65–66:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Villar MV, Iglesias RV, Gutiérrez-Álvarez C, Carbonell B (2018) Hydraulic and mechanical properties of compacted bentonites after 18 years in barrier conditions. Appl Clay Sci 160:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang Q, Tang AM, Cui YJ, Delage P, Gatmiri B (2012) Experimental study on the swelling behaviour of bentonite/claystone mixture. Eng Geol 124:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang Q, Tang AM, Cui YJ, Barnichon JD, Delage P, Ye WM (2013) The effects of technological voids on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted bentonite-sand mixture. Soils Found 53(2):232–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ye W, Wan M, Chen B, Cui Y-J, Wang J (2011) Temperature effects on soil–water retention properties of densely compacted GMZ01 bentonite. In: Alonso EE, Gens A (eds) Proceedings of the international conference of unsaturated soils. Barcelona, Spain, pp 601–606Google Scholar
  37. Yahia-Aissa M (1999) Comportement hydro-mécanique d’un matériau argileux fortement compacté. PhD thesis, Ecole des Ponts ParisTechGoogle Scholar
  38. Yahia-Aissa M, Delage P, Cui YJ (2001) Suction-water relationship in swelling clays. In: Adachi K, Fukue M (eds) Clay science for engineering, IS-Shizuoka international symposium on suction, swelling, permeability and structure of clays, Balkema, pp 65–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecole des Ponts ParisTechParisFrance

Personalised recommendations