Engineering Performance and Its Mechanism of Expansive Soils Modified by Adjusted and Activated Steel-Slag

  • Jun Wu
  • Qianwen Liu
  • Yongfeng DengEmail author
  • Qi Feng
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Steel slag, a kind of by-products of steel industry, is enormously produced, however, its re-usage was still limited for the mutative chemical compositions and the low cementation. In this investigation, the composition adjustment and activation of the steel slag were first carried out to improve the cementation and to form the optimal slag-based composite, where the controlling indexes of cement clinker were introduced. Hereafter, the composite was used to modify Hefei expansive soils for the application of embankment construction. The basic physical properties including free swelling rate (FSR), Compaction test and California bearing ratio (CBR) were conducted to understand the engineering performance and to clarify the mechanism of expansive soils modified by the slag-based composite. The results show that when the soil was modified by the composite, the expansion potential was obviously suppressed, and then the treated soil can satisfy the requirement when the composite incorporation ratio was more than 5%. Thereafter, the compaction and CBR of the modified expansive soils suggests the excellent performance when the composite incorporation ratio is more than 7%. The above findings improve the reuse efficiency of the steel slag, and propose a material for the modification of expansive soils.


Steel slag Component adjustment and activation Modification of expansive soil Engineering performance 



This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41572280) and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. KYCX17-0131).


  1. ASTM D1557-12 (2012) Standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using modified effort. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM D4546-03 (2003) Standard test methods for one-dimensional swell or settlement potential of cohesive soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  3. Basha EA, Hashim R, Mahmud HB, Muntohar AS (2005) Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement. Constr Build Mater 19:448–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dang LC, Fatahi B, Khabbaz H (2016) Behaviour of expansive soils stabilized with hydrated lime and bagasse fibres. Procedia Eng 143:658–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deng YF, Yue XB, Liu SY, Chen YG, Zhang DW (2015) Hydraulic conductivity of cement-stabilized marine clay with metakaolin and its correlation with pore size distribution. Eng Geol 193:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du YJ, Sheng LL, Hayashi S (1999) Swelling-shrinkage properties and soil improvement of compacted expansive soil, Ning-Liang Highway, China. Eng Geol 53(3):351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Estabragh AR, Moghadas M, Javadi AA (2013) Effect of different types of wetting fluids on the behaviour of expansive soil during wetting and drying. Soils Found 53(5):617–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goodarzi AR, Salimi M (2015) Stabilization treatment of a dispersive clayey soil using granulated blast furnace slag and basic oxygen furnace slag. Appl Clay Sci 108:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guneya Y, Sarib D, Cetinc M, Tuncana M (2007) Impact of cyclic wetting-drying on swelling behavior of lime-stabilized soil. Build Environ 42:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hossain KMA, Lachemi M, Easa S (2007) Stabilized soils for construction applications incorporating natural resources of papua new guinea. Resour Conserv Recycl 51:711–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kavak A, Akyarli A (2007) A field application for lime stabilization. Environ Geol 51:987–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khemissa M, Mahamedi A (2014) Cement and lime mixture stabilization of an expansive overconsolidated clay. Appl Clay Sci 95:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kolias S, Kasselouri-Rigopoulou V, Karahalios A (2005) Stabilisation of clayey soils with high calcium fly ash and cement. Cem Concr Composites 27:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar A, Walia BS, Bajaj A (2007) Influence of fly ash, lime, and polyester fibers on compaction and strength properties of expansive soil. J Mater Civ Eng 19(3):242–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim S, Jeon W, Lee J, Lee K, Kim N (2002) Engineering properties of water/wastewater-treatment sludge modified by hydrated lime, fly ash and loess. Water Res 36:4177–4184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu QW (2015) Component adjustment and activation of steel slag and effectiveness enhancement of its recycling application. Master’s Thesis, Southeast University, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  17. Manso JM, Ortega-Lopez V, Polanco JA, Setien J (2013) The use of ladle furnace slag in soil stabilization. Constr Build Mater 40:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Miller GA, Azad S (2000) Influence of soil type on stabilization with cement kiln dust. Constr Build Mater 14:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nalbantoglu Z (2004) Effectiveness of Class C fly ash as an expansive soil stabilizer. Constr Build Mater 18(6):377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rahman MA (1987) Effects of cement-rice husk ash mixtures on geotechnical properties of lateritic soils. Soils Found 27(2):61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saride S, Puppala AJ, Chikyala SR (2013) Swell-shrink and strength behaviors of lime and cement stabilized expansive organic clays. Appl Clay Sci 85:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seco A, Ramirez F, Miqueleiz L, Garcia B (2011) Stabilization of expansive soils for use in construction. Appl Clay Sci 51(3):348–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shahbazi M, Rowshanzamir M, Abtahi SM, Hejazi SM (2017) Optimization of carpet waste fibers and steel slag particles to reinforce expansive soil using response surface methodology. Appl Clay Sci 142:185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shalabi FI, Asi IM, Qasrawi HY (2017) Effect of by-product steel slag on the engineering properties of clay soils. J King Saud Univ Eng Sci 29(4):394–399Google Scholar
  25. Wu ZL, Deng YF, Liu SY, Liu QW, Cheng YG, Zha FS (2016) Strength and micro-structure evolution of compacted soils modified by admixtures of cement and metakaolin. Appl Clay Sci 127–128:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang TW, Yue XB, Deng YF, Zhang DW, Liu SY (2014) Mechanical behaviour and micro-structure of cement-stabilized marine clay with a metakaolin agent. Constr Build Mater 73:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  3. 3.School of Resources and Environmental EngineeringHefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations