Geotechnical Parameters of Mixtures of a Tropical Soil with Water Treatment Sludge

  • Edy L. T. MontalvanEmail author
  • Maria E. G. Boscov
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Addition of Water Treatment Sludge (WTS) to soils in earthworks may reduce land disposal of WTS and exploitation of natural soils. In this perspective, geotechnical properties of mixtures of a Brazilian tropical soil with WTS in the proportions 5:1, 4:1 and 3:1 (by wet weight) were evaluated. Grading curve and Atterberg limits were obtained for the WTS, soil and mixtures. One-dimensional consolidation, triaxial compression and permeability tests were carried out on compacted specimens of the soil and the soil-WTS mixtures. Geotechnical characteristics of the mixtures resulted slightly different from those of the soil, and previous air-drying affected the compaction parameters of the mixtures. The mixtures presented higher compression indexes than the soil, however swelling indexes were similar for all materials. Hydraulic conductivity decreased with WTS addition, whereas internal friction angles of the mixtures increased and effective cohesion decreased with increase of WTS content. The geotechnical parameters of the mixtures are acceptable for earthworks and indicate possibility of WTS reuse, to be further analyzed relative to environmental feasibility.


Water treatment sludge Waste reuse Tropical soil 



The authors acknowledge The Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, File Numbers: 2013/50448-8 and 2017/24056-6) for financial support and the Water Treatment Plant of Cubatao for the supply of the sludge.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Structural and Geotechnical EngineeringUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

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