Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure Gradient and Glaucoma: A Retrospective Point of View

  • Xiangxiang Liu
  • Diya Yang
  • Ningli WangEmail author
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 1)


Glaucoma is one of the most ancient diseases. It was first described as “glaykoseis” in the era of Hippocrates in the fourth century B. C. with the symptoms of the seawater-like “greenish gray” appearing in the eyes and no vision [1]. In China, the Sheng Nong’s Herbal Classic recorded “green vision disorder” and “green vision impairment” back to Qin and Han dynasty [2]. However, doctors back then gave the diagnosis merely by judging the vision loss and change of the color of the eye; thus, other diseases, such as cataract, were also included, and the doctors could not distinguish them from glaucoma. In 1622, a British physician, Banister, recorded a patient whose vision wasn’t improved after cataract removal and the eyeball showed a hard state.l, which was the first document to relate intraocular pressure (IOP) to glaucoma [3].


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

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