Conciliation of Discrepancy of Hypertensive Glaucoma and Normal-Tension Glaucoma Through Intraocular-Intracranial Pressure Gradient

  • Zhigang FanEmail author
  • Si’an Liu
  • Zhenni Zhao
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 1)


Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. It is estimated that by the year 2020, 79.6 million people will suffer from primary glaucoma with 11.2 million sufferers of bilateral blindness throughout the world [1]. The key to preventing blindness caused by glaucoma is early diagnosis and treatment. Clarification of the definition of glaucoma is important for guiding researches in this field.


  1. 1.
    Quigley HA, Broman AT. The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(3):262–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Glaucoma Group Of Chinese Ophthalmological Society. The Preliminary Proposals for Early Diagnosis of Primary Glaucoma. Chin J Ophthalmol. 1987;23(2):127.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glaucoma Group Of Chinese Ophthalmological Society. The Expert Consensuses on Diagnosis and Treatments of Primary Glaucoma in China (2008). Chin J Ophthalmol. 2008;44(9):862–3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glaucoma Group Of Chinese Ophthalmological Society. The Expert Consensuses on Diagnosis and Treatments of Primary Glaucoma in China. Chin J Ophthalmol. 2014;2014(5):382–3.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee PP. Understanding the new primary open-angle glaucoma preferred practice pattern. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1998;38(3):93–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prum BEJ, Rosenberg LF, Gedde SJ, et al. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Preferred Practice Pattern. Ophthalmology 2016;123(1):P41–111.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prum BEJ, Lim MC, Mansberger SL, et al. Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Suspect Preferred Practice Pattern. Ophthalmology 2016;123(1):P112–51.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kass MA, Heuer DK, Higginbotham EJ, et al. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study: a randomized trial determines that topical ocular hypotensive medication delays or prevents the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(6):701–13. 829-30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    European Glaucoma Society Terminology and Guidelines for Glaucoma. 4th Edition - Chapter 3: Treatment principles and options. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101(6):130–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Foster PJ, Buhrmann R, Quigley HA, Johnson GJ. The definition and classification of glaucoma in prevalence surveys. Brit J Ophthalmol. 2002;86(2):238–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prum BEJ, Herndon LWJ, Moroi SE, et al. Primary Angle Closure Preferred Practice Pattern. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(1):1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang N, Wu H, Fan Z. Primary angle closure glaucoma in Chinese and Western populations. Chin Med J. 2002;115(11):1706–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    He M, Ge J. Primary angle closure--a new term in the definition of primary angle closure glaucoma? Chin J Ophthalmol. 2005;12:1061–4.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foster PJ, Baasanhu J, Alsbirk PH, et al. Glaucoma in Mongolia. A population-based survey in Hovsgol province, northern Mongolia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(10):1235–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Foster PJ, Oen FT, Machin D, et al. The prevalence of glaucoma in Chinese residents of Singapore: a cross-sectional population survey of the Tanjong Pagar district. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(8):1105–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salmon JF, Mermoud A, Ivey A, et al. The prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma and open angle glaucoma in Mamre, western Cape, South Africa. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(9):1263–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Congdon NG, Quigley HA, Hung PT, et al. Screening techniques for angle-closure glaucoma in rural Taiwan. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1996;74(2):113–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Douglas GR, Drance SM, Schulzer M. The visual field and nerve head in angle-closure glaucoma. A comparison of the effects of acute and chronic angle closure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1975;93(6):409–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dhillon B, Chew PT, Lim ASM. Field loss in primary angle-closure glaucoma. Asia-Pac J Ophthalmoly. 1990;2:85–7.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ren Z. Devoting much attention to further understanding the definition of glaucoma. Chin J Ophthalmol. 2006;3:193–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thomas R, Parikh R, Muliyil J, Kumar RS. Five-year risk of progression of primary angle closure to primary angle closure glaucoma: a population-based study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003;81(5):480–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aung T, Friedman DS, Chew PT, et al. Long-term outcomes in Asians after acute primary angle closure. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(8):1464–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ge J. Scientific controversy to push the progress of glaucoma practice—inspiration by the debate on the classification of primary angle closure glaucoma. Chin J Ophthalmol. 2006;11:964–6.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lu D, Liu X, Wang C. Analysis of intraocular pressure, cup disc ration and systemic blood pressure for the prediction of prognosis of glaucoma patients. Eye Science. 1985;01:77–80.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Glaucoma Group Of Chinese Ophthalmological Society. The Consensuses and Suggestions on POAG Ocular-Cranial Pressure Gradient in China (2017). Chin J Ophthalmol. 2017;53(2):89–91.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hou R, Zhang Z, Yang D, et al. Pressure balance and imbalance in the optic nerve chamber: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study. Sci China Life Sci. 2016;12:1413–22.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Berdahl JP, Fautsch MP, Stinnett SS, Allingham RR. Intracranial pressure in primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma, and ocular hypertension: a case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(12):5412–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berdahl JP, Allingham RR, Johnson DH. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure is decreased in primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(5):763–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ren R, Jonas JB, Tian G, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure in glaucoma: a prospective study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(2):259–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ren R, Wang N, Zhang X, et al. Trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference correlated with neuroretinal rim area in glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249(7):1057–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jonas JB, Wang NL, Wang YX, et al. Estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference versus intraocular pressure as biomarker for open-angle glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011. Acta Ophthalmol. 2015;93(1):e7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang D, Fu J, Hou R, et al. Optic neuropathy induced by experimentally reduced cerebrospinal fluid pressure in monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55(5):3067–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang Z, Liu D, Jonas JB, et al. Axonal Transport in the Rat Optic Nerve Following Short-Term Reduction in Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure or Elevation in Intraocular Pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56(8):4257–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hou R, Zhang Z, Yang D, et al. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and optic nerve subarachnoid space pressure (ONSP) correlation in the optic nerve chamber: the Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) study. Brain Res. 1635;2016:201–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou J. Wang Ning-li: stand on the international rostrum. Int Stud. 2010;10:24–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhongshan Ophthalmic centerSun Yet-sen UniversityGuangdongChina

Personalised recommendations