The Optic Nerve Chamber Syndrome

  • Ruowu Hou
  • Ningli WangEmail author
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 1)


The main cause of glaucoma has been complex and not very clear until now. The higher intraocular pressure (IOP) is generally regarded as the high risk factor, whereas recently more and more researches have found that intracranial pressure (ICP) was also a danger factor in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, especially for “normal tension glaucoma” (NTG) in which IOP is at normal levels, but patients also suffer from progressing disk cupping and defect of visual field [1, 2]. Therefore, the elevated IOP alone cannot explain the neuropathology of NTG, and it is not clear what kind of role the ICP play. The contribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma has been studied for many years, but the effectiveness of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is still unknown. Furthermore, the exact correlation between ICP and IOP also remains unclear, specifically the relationship between ICP and the optic nerve subarachnoid space pressure (ONSP) [3–6].


  1. 1.
    Abegao Pinto L, et al. Intraocular pressure correlates with optic nerve sheath diameter in patients with normal tension glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250(7):1075–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berdahl JP, et al. Intracranial pressure in primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma, and ocular hypertension: a case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(12):5412–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hou R, et al. Pressure balance and imbalance in the optic nerve chamber: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study. Sci China Life Sci. 2016;59(5):495–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yavin D, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of intraocular pressure measurement for the detection of raised intracranial pressure: meta-analysis: a systematic review. J Neurosurg. 2014;121(3):680–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li Z, et al. Intraocular pressure vs intracranial pressure in disease conditions: a prospective cohort study (Beijing iCOP study). BMC Neurol. 2012;12(1):66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kirk T, et al. Measurement of intraocular and intracranial pressure: is there a relationship? Ann Neurol. 2011;70(2):323–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hou R, et al. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and optic nerve subarachnoid space pressure (ONSP) correlation in the optic nerve chamber: the Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) study. Brain Res. 2016;1635:201–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tokuda T, Kida S. erebrospinal fluid: reconsiderations and revisions of an unquestioningly accepted dogma of 100 years. Brain Nerve. 2015;67(5):617–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kasprowicz M, et al. Intracranial pressure, its components and cerebrospinal fluid pressure-volume compensation. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015;134(3):168–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamada S. Cerebrospinal fluid physiology: visualization of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics using the magnetic resonance imaging Time-Spatial Inversion Pulse method. Croat Med J. 2014;55(4):337–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Killer HE. Production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid with respect to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve. J Glaucoma. 2013;22(Suppl 5):S8–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sakka L, Coll G, Chazal J. Anatomy and physiology of cerebrospinal fluid. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2011;128(6):309–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaggi GP, Mironov A, Huber AR, Killer HE. Optic nerve compartment syndrome in a patient with optic nerve sheath meningioma. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:454–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jaggi GP, Harlev M, Ziegler U, Dotan S, Miller NR, Killer HE. Cerebrospinal fluid segregation optic neuropathy: an experimental model and a hypothesis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:1088–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morgan WH, Yu DY, Cooper RL, Alder VA, Cringle SJ, Constable IJ. The influence of cerebrospinal fluid pressure on the lamina cribrosa tissue pressure gradient. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:1163–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morgan WH, Yu DY, Alder VA, et al. The correlation between cerebrospinal fluid pressure and retrolaminar tissue pressure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39:1419–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murtha LA, Yang Q, Parsons MW, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid is drained primarily via the spinal canal and olfactory route in young and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2014;11:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu H, Ni Z, Chen Y, et al. Olfactory route for cerebrospinal fluid drainage into the cervical lymphatic system in a rabbit experimental model. Neural Regen Res. 2012;7:766–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brinker T, Ludemann W, Berens von Rautenfeld D, Samii M. Dynamic properties of lymphatic pathways for the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Acta Neuropathol. 1997;94:493–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ludemann W, Berens von Rautenfeld D, Samii M, Brinker T. Ultrastructure of the cerebrospinal fluid outflow along the optic nerve into the lymphatic system. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes TJ, et al. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels. Nature. 2015;523:337–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Orgul S. Compartment syndrome in the optic nerve: a new hypothesis in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:686–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Killer HE. Compartment syndromes of the optic nerve and open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2013;22(Suppl 5):S19–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryBeijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Beijing Ophthalmology &Visual Sciences Key LaboratoryBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations