Preparation of Reduced TiO2–x for Photocatalysis

  • Jinlong Zhang
  • Baozhu Tian
  • Lingzhi Wang
  • Mingyang Xing
  • Juying Lei
Part of the Lecture Notes in Chemistry book series (LNC, volume 100)


The development of TiO2–x photocatalysts will be discussed in this chapter. TiO2–x can be obtained by the incorporation of H atoms or the removal of oxygen atoms on the surface and/or in the bulk of TiO2 photocatalysts. It has been proved to be an efficient environmental and energy conversion–storage material, which can be used in photodegradation of organic compounds, photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water splitting, photoreduction of CO2, lithium-ion batteries, oxygen reduction reaction, and dye-sensitized solar cells. Firstly, the preparation methods of TiO2–x are carefully discussed and scientifically classified into two main categories, where the reactions take place under reducing or oxidizing atmosphere. In order to further improve the activities of TiO2–x catalysts, modification approaches are then introduced, such as doping with nonmetal elements, grafting with metals, compositing with other materials, designing of ordered morphology, special facet exposure, etc. Finally, the current challenges and limits of TiO2–x are also proposed, and new catalyst systems are encouraged for practical applications in the near future.


Reduced TiO2 TiO2–x Photocatalyst Ti3 + Oxygen vacancy H incorporation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinlong Zhang
    • 1
  • Baozhu Tian
    • 1
  • Lingzhi Wang
    • 1
  • Mingyang Xing
    • 1
  • Juying Lei
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials & Institute of Fine ChemicalsEast China University of Science & TechnologyShanghaiChina

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