• Dinesh Chandra Uprety
  • V. R. Reddy
  • Jyostna Devi Mura


Sun is the only known source of energy for our earth. Climate on the earth is determined by the balance between earth’s intercepted solar energy and its reradiation from the earth. The earth’s atmosphere varies in density and composition according to their distance from the biosphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere is called the troposphere. The troposphere extending from the earth’s surface to a height of about 8–14.5 km contains the majority of the atmosphere’s mass and is the location of most of the earth’s weather. The atmosphere just above the troposphere and extends to 50 km high is called stratosphere, where the ozone layer is formed which absorbs ultraviolet radiations from the sun. The mesosphere starts above the stratosphere and extends to 85 km high. The thermosphere is above mesosphere and extends to 600 km high, where aurora and satellites occur (Zell 2017).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinesh Chandra Uprety
    • 1
  • V. R. Reddy
    • 2
  • Jyostna Devi Mura
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Plant PhysiologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Adaptive Cropping System LaboratoryUSDA, ARSBeltsvilleUSA

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