Conclusions and Implications

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu


The current research–a study on the washback effects of TEM–has explored the influence of TEM on teaching and learning for undergraduate English majors. Various participants were surveyed through different approaches, and the major findings are summarized in this chapter. Moreover, suggestions are made on the reform of TEM and English teaching and learning.


  1. M. Kane, Current concerns in validity theory [J]. J. Educ. Meas. 38(4), 319–342 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. L. Qi, The intended washback effect of the National Matriculation English Test in China: Intentions and reality [M] (Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing, 2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations