Classroom Practice and the Washback of TEM

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu


Based on the questionnaire findings presented in the previous chapter, a classroom observation scheme was developed to analyze TEM preparation and non-preparation classes, to discern possible differences which may be attributed to the washback of TEM. This chapter reports relevant research findings from the classroom observations, as well as differences between TEM preparation and non-preparation classes, different teachers, and so on.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

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