Stakeholders’ Perceptions of TEM and Its Washback

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu


This chapter presents research findings from the questionnaire surveys. The responses of experts, program administrators, teachers and students will be analyzed one by one, to identify their respective evaluation of TEM and its washback, and then a comparison would be made to identify areas of agreement and divergence.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

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