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Theoretical Frameworks for Washback Studies

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews relevant literature on washback models and empirical studies, in an attempt to provide a framework for the issues addressed in the present study. First, an overview of the various washback models has been provided. Then, a brief account and analysis is made on the empirical washback studies conducted in recent decades, summarizing their approaches, methods and findings.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

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