Advertisement

Washback: Definitions and Dimentions

  • Qian Xu
  • Jun Liu
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews relevant literature on washback theory, including its definitions and dimensions. Various terminology of washback has been explored and six main dimensions of washback have been specified, namely, direction, extent, intensity, intentionality, length and specificity.

Bibliography

  1. C. Alderson, Foreword. [A], in Washback in Language Testing: Research Context and Methods, ed. by L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, A. Curtis (Eds), (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Mahwah, 2004), pp. ix–xiiGoogle Scholar
  2. C. Alderson, D. Wall, Does washback exist? [J]. Appl. Linguis. 14(2), 116–129 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. L. Bachman, A. Palmer, Language Testing in Practice [M] (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996)Google Scholar
  4. L. Bachman, A. Palmer, Language Assessment in Practice [M] (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010)Google Scholar
  5. K. Bailey, Working for washback: A review of the washback concept in language testing [J]. Lang. Test. 13(3), 257–279 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. L. Cheng, How does washback influence teaching? Implications for Hong Kong [J]. Language and Education 11, 38-54 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. L. Cheng, Changing Language Teaching through Language Testing: A Washback Study [M] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005)Google Scholar
  8. L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, A. Curtis (eds.), Washback in Language Testing: Research Context and Methods [C] (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, 2004)Google Scholar
  9. A. Davies, Demands of being professional in language testing [J]. Lang. Test. 14(3), 328–339 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. I. Ferman, The washback of an EFL national oral matriculation test to teaching and learning [A], in Washback in Language Testing: Research Context and Methods, ed. by L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, A. Curtis (Eds), (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Mahwah, 2004), pp. 191–210Google Scholar
  11. R. Frederiksen, A.A. Collins, Systems approach to educational testing [J]. Educ. Res. 18(9), 27–32 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. A. Green, IELTS Washback in Context [M] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007)Google Scholar
  13. X. Gu, Positive or Negative—an Empirical Study of CET Washback [M] (Chongqing University Press, Chongqing, 2007)Google Scholar
  14. L. Hamp-Lyons, Ethical test preparation practice: The case of the TOEFL [J]. TESOL Q. 33(2), 329–337 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. R. Hawkey, Impact Theory and Practice: Studies of the IELTS Test and Progetto Lingue 2000 [M] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006)Google Scholar
  16. A. Hughes, Testing for Language Teachers [M] (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003)Google Scholar
  17. T. Kellaghan, V. Greaney, Using Examinations to Improve Education: A Study of Fourteen African Countries [M] (World Bank, Washington, DC, 1992)Google Scholar
  18. F. Madaus, The influence of testing on the curriculum [A], in Critical Issues in Curriculum, ed. by L. N. Tanner (Ed), (Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1988), pp. 83–121Google Scholar
  19. F. McNamara, Measuring Second Language Performance [M] (Longman, Harlow, 1996)Google Scholar
  20. S. Messick, Validity [A], in Educational Measurement, ed. by R. Linn (Ed), 3rd edn., (ACE and Macmillan, New York, 1989), pp. 13–103Google Scholar
  21. S. Messick, Validity and washback in language testing [J]. Lang. Test. 13, 241–256 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. K. Morrow, The evaluation of tests of communicative performance [A], in Innovations in Language Testing: Proceedings of the IUS/NFER Conference, ed. by M. Portal (Ed), (NFER/Nelson, London, 1986), pp. 1–13Google Scholar
  23. J. Popham, Two-plus decades of educational objectives [J]. Int. J. Educ. Res. 11(1), 31–41 (1987)Google Scholar
  24. L. Qi, The intended washback effect of the National Matriculation English Test in China: Intentions and reality [M] (Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing, 2004)Google Scholar
  25. B. Resnick, P. Resnick, Assessing the thinking curriculum: New tools for educational reform [A], in Changing Assessments: Alternative Views of Aptitude, Achievement and Instruction, ed. by B. G. Gifford, M. C. O’Conner (Eds), (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1992), pp. 37–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. E. Shohamy, The Power of Tests: A Critical Perspective of the Uses of Language Tests [M] (Longman, Harlow, 2001)Google Scholar
  27. L. Smith, Put to the test: The effects of external testing on teachers [J]. Educ. Res. 20(5), 8–11 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. B. Spolsky, The examination-classroom backwash cycle: some historical cases [A], in Bringing about Change in Language Education, ed. by D. Nunan, R. Berry, V. Berry (Eds), (Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong, Department of Curriculum Studies, 1996), pp. 55-66Google Scholar
  29. Y. Watanabe, Does grammar-translation come from the entrance examination? Preliminary findings from classroom-based research [J]. Lang. Test. 13(3), 318–333 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Y. Watanabe, Methodology in washback studies [A], in Washback in Language Testing: Research Context and Methods 9, ed. by L. Cheng, Y. Watanabe, A. Curtis (Eds), (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Mahwah, 2004), pp. 9–36Google Scholar
  31. J. Weir, Communicative Language Testing [M] (Prentice Hall, New York, 1990)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qian Xu
    • 1
  • Jun Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai International Studies UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Shanghai University of Electric PowerShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations