Advertisement

Quantum Reality and Concept of Śūnya: Need for an Integrative Approach

  • Surendra Singh Pokharna
Chapter

Abstract

Quantum physics used for microscopic particles of matter like electrons and light shows that they behave both like wave and particle, the two contradictory aspects in classical physics. Also quantum field theory used to explain properties of elementary particles necessitated the introduction of vacuum states with no particle but huge energy in flat space-time domain. But the curved space-time indicates a different scenario. Here one observes a vacuum state in one reference frame but shows a state with particles, when looked from a different reference frame. Quantum field theory to explain superfluidity and superconductivity shows a need to introduce a vacuum state with an order and elementary excitations. David Bohm’s concept of explicate and implicate orders in quantum physics to explain hidden variables brought a new dimension to look at the reality. This implicate order looks like another type of vacuum state. Prof. Adrain Klein from Israel has developed a model for sub-quantum physics (domain below the Planck level) and found that this domain does not have any matter; it just has information. This can be again treated as some kind of vacuum state. We find similar concepts in Jainism involving their theory of karma and their concept of two parts of the universe. One finds a similar concept known as “Form and Emptiness” by Nagarjuna of Buddhist tradition. Finally it is suggested that Jain theory of anekāntavāda (multiple truths) should be taken seriously by scientists. Actually since the process of measurement in quantum physics results into wave-function reduction in which one finds only one eigen state out of many, the process itself takes away information about other eigen states; hence it can be treated as vacuum state of some type. Penrose believes that human decision-making is neither deterministic nor random and nor is it computable; hence a Śūnya appears in our formalism at a very fundamental level, when we talk of any decision towards understanding the reality.

Even if we look at the classical physics, we find that the approach using the conservation laws defined for a closed isolated system implies ignoring interaction at a very basic level. This can be treated as another type of Śūnyat. While treating the biological, social and human systems as open systems implies one more type of Śūnya, here entropy/order and information are crucial for description of these systems, whereas other parameters like energy are secondary. Even in the process of measurement, one only looks at a few parameters of a system while ignoring other attributes which are treated as Śūnya. When one looks at the concept of logic in this whole scenario, one finds that Gödel’s incompleteness theorems imply our inability to understand even the simplest property of mathematical numbers.

Keywords

Microscopic particles Superfluidity Superconductivity Vacuum state Explicate and implicate orders Sub-quantum physics Theory of karma Anekāntavāda 

References

  1. 1.
    Adrin Klein. Consciousness and causality: a sub-quantum time symmetric approach. In: Presented at the Fourth International Conference of Science and scientists, organized by Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Institute and the Bangalore University and held at Bangalore University November 5–6, 2016. See pre conference Proceedings, pp. 72–85.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Neppe VM, Close ER. How some conundrums of reality can be solved by applying a finite 9-D spinning model. IQ Nexus J. 2015;7(2):7–94.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatt SR. Concept note for the International Conference on Quantum Reality and Theory of Śūnya, organized by ICCR, December 09–10, 2016 in Delhi (Abstracts of this conference).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carrol SM. An introduction to general relativity: space time and geometry. San Franscisco: Addison Wesley; 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pokharna Surendra Singh. Study of the effect of the phonon and roton interactions on the transport and thermodynamic properties of liquid helium, A Ph.D. thesis approved by the University of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khaltnikova IM. Theory of superfluidity. New York: Benjamin; 1965.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andreas S. Introduction to superfluidity, field-theoretical approach and applications. Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bohm D. Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Rontledge & Kegan Paul; 1980.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Kachhara NL. Scientific explorations of Jain doctrine, part 1 and 2. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 2014.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mehta ML. Jain psychology: an introduction. Varanasi: ParashvanathVidyapeeth; 2002.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mehta ML. Jain philosophy: an introduction. Bangalore: Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan; 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hugenhold NM, Pines D. Ground state energy and excitation spectrum of a system of interacting bosons. In: Pines D, editor. The many body problem. New York: Benjamin; 1962. p. 332.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pokharna Surendra Singh. Quantum field theory like model of consciousness and matter in Jainism. In: Proceedings of International conference on Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Consciousness, being organized by Amal Jyothi college of Engineering, Kottayam, Kerala, India from January 6–9, 2015, pp. 93–101.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Close ER. Transcendental physics. San Jose: i.Universe.com; 1997.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Besant A, Besant A, Leadbeater CW, Jinarajadasa C. Occult chemistry: clairvoyance observations on the chemical elements. Cosimo Classics; 2007, original published in 1908.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephen P. Extrasensory perception of subatomic particles I. historical evidence. J Sci Explor. 1995; 9(4): 489–525.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Surendra Singh Pokharna, Samani Chaitanya Prajna, Manohar Lal Kalra, Rajmal Jain, Jagat Singh Pokharna. Some Quantitative Evidences indicating that knowledge is structured in the consciousness: A recent Theory of Everything supports this possibility. ISJS trans. January-March 2019. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Landau LD, Lifshitz. Quantum mechanics (non-relativistic theory). Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1964, pp. 28 for definition of energy and pp. 42 for definition of momentum in QM.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Agarwal PM, Sharda R. OR-forum, quantum mechanics and human decision making. Oper Res. 2013; 61, 1–16.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Narendra B, Pokharna Surendra Singh. Syadavada and Anekantavada in the modern scientific context, Compendium on Science and Mathematics in Jainism, collection of white papers, Bhagwan Mahavir International Research Center, for Scientific Research and Innovative Studies in Social Sciences, Ladnun (Rajasthan), India. 2017.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pokharna SS. A new investigation into the problem of perfect determinism in modern science. Indian Philos Q. 1985;XII(1):67–83.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Singh PS. Knowledge, order and evolution proceedings. Gyan Sagar Foundation, presented in Mumbai conference January 7–8, 2012.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Narendra B. Jainism: the eternal and universal path to enlightenment (a scientific synthesis). Jaipur: PrakritBharti Academy; 2015.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prajna C, Kachhara NL, Bhandari N. Scientific perspectives of Jainism. In: Proceedings of a two day conference organized by Bhagwan Mahavir International Center for Scientific Research and Social Innovative Studies, Jain Vishwa Bharti, Ladnun, Rajasthan, India. 2016.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jainism (General Books on Jainism) see the link www.jainlibrary.org/english.php.
  28. 28.
    Dhammo J. Aacharya Shri Nanesh (Nana Lalji Maharasahab). Bikaner: Akhil Bhartiya Sadhumargi Jain Shravak Sangh; 2008. p. 202–9. (In Hindi)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chalmer DJ. The conscious mind: in the search of a fundamental theory. In: Philosophy of mind. revised ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rangarajana A. Can a quantum field theory ontology help resolve the problem of consciousness. In: Pre-proceedings of the International conference on Quantum Reality and Theory of Śūnya, organized by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) in New Delhi on December 9–10, 2016.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strawson G. Consciousness and its place in nature: does physicalism entail. Thorverton: Imprint Academic; 2011.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Niskama SB. Life and consciousness–the Vedāntic view. Commun Integr Biol. 2015;8(5):e1085138.1–11 (electronic version).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kothari DS. In: French AP, Kennedy PJ, editors. The complementarity principle and eastern philosophy, Neils Bohr centenary volume. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1985. p. 325–31.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Westerhoff J. Nāgarjuna Madhymaka, a philosophical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aspect A, Grangier P, Roger G. Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm Gedanken experiment - a new violation of bell inequalities. Phys Rev Lett. 1982;49(2):91–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surendra Singh Pokharna
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.B-71, Pruthvi Tower, Jodhpur Char RastaAhmedabadIndia
  2. 2.Bhagawan Mahavir International Research Centre (BMIRC), Jain Vishwa Bharti, LadnunNagaurIndia
  3. 3.Science and Spirituality Research InstituteAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations