Bioremediation: An Eco-friendly Sustainable Technology for Environmental Management

  • Christopher Chibueze AzubuikeEmail author
  • Chioma Blaise Chikere
  • Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili


Evironmental pollution is a major public health concern due to the detrimental effects of pollutants to humans and to other living organisms. Chemical and physical methods of remediation are expensive and do not result in complete removal of pollutants. Moreover, both methods may lead to more pollution and site disruption, thus impacting negatively to humans and other biota in the immediate vicinity of the polluted site. Therefore, chemical and physical methods of remediation are not considered eco-sustainable. Unlike these methods, bioremediation, which relies on biological processes (mediated by different groups of living organisms), results in the permanent removal of pollutants. This chapter covers: the eco-sustainable features of bioremediation, pollutants that are susceptible to bioremediation, groups of organisms that play significant roles in bioremediation, and advantages of bioremediation. Furthermore, it highlighted some limitations of bioremediation and ways of overcoming the limitations. Together, the advantages of bioremediation techniques notably its cost-effectiveness at different scales of operation, the simplicity of operation, process monitoring, and its less destructive features to polluted sites during operation are amongst the features that make bioremediation an eco-sustainable technology for environmental management.


Environmental pollutants Toxicity Bioremediation Eco-sustainable technology Environmental management 



The authors are thankful to Dr. (Mrs.) Okeke-Ogbuafor NA, School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, United Kingdom, for proofreading of this chapter.


  1. Abbasian F, Lockington R, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R (2015) A comprehensive review of aliphatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by bacteria. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176:1–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almansoory AF, Hasan HA, Idris M, Abdullah SRS, Anuar N (2015) Potential application of a biosurfactant in phytoremediation technology for treatment of gasoline-contaminated soil. Ecol Eng 84:113–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez A, Saez JM, Davila Costa JS, Colin VL, Fuentes MS, Cuozzo SA, Benimeli CS, Polti MA, Amoroso MJ (2017) Actinobacteria: current research and perspectives for bioremediation of pesticides and heavy metals. Chemosphere 166:41–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arora PK, Srivastava A, Singh VP (2014) Bacterial degradation of nitrophenols and their derivatives. J Hazard Mater 266:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora PK, Srivastava A, Garg SK, Singh VP (2018) Recent advances in degradation of chloronitrophenols. Bioresour Technol 250C:902–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azubuike CC, Chikere CB, Okpokwasili GC (2016) Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balba MT, Al-awadhi N, Al-daher R (1998) Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil: microbiological methods for feasibility assessment and field evaluation. J Microbiol Methods 32:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belouchrani AS, Mameri N, Abdi N, Grib H, Lounici H, Drouiche N (2016) Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with Zn using Canola(Brassica napus L). Ecol Eng 95:43–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beškoski VP, Miletić S, Ilić M, Gojgić-Cvijović G, Papić P, Marić N, Šolević-Knudsen T, Jovančićević BS, Nakano T, Vrvić MM (2017) Biodegradation of isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes, and phenanthrenes during in situ bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated groundwater. Clean (Weinh) 45:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P, Saxena G (2017a) Bioremediation: an ecosustainable green technology: its applications and limitations. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–22. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Chowdhary P (2017b) Constructed wetlands: an emerging phytotechnology for degradation and detoxification of industrial wastewaters. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 397–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Mulla SI, Patel DK (2017c) Characterization and identification of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) in tannery wastewater and its phytotoxicity evaluation for environmental safety. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boopathy (2000) Factors limiting bioremediation technology. Bioresour Technol 74:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borde X, Guieysse B, Delgado O, Munoz R, Hatti-Kaul R, Nugier-Chauvin C, Patin H, Mattiasson B (2003) Synergistic relationships in algal-bacterial microcosms for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. Bioresour Technol 86:293–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Briceño G, Schalchli H, Mutis A, Benimeli CS, Palma G, Tortella GR, Diez MC (2016) Use of pure and mixed culture of diazinon-degrading Streptomyces to remove other organophosphorus pesticides. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 114:193–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carmona M, Zamarro MT, Blazquez B, Durante-Rodriguez G, Juarez JF, Valderrama JA, Barragán MJ, García JL, Díaz E (2009) Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 73:71–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cassidy DP, Srivastava VJ, Dombrowski FJ, Lingle JW (2015) Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil. J Hazard Mater 297:347–355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cerniglia CE, Gibson DT, Baalen CV (1979) Algal oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons: formation of 1-Naphthol from naphthalene by Agmenellum quadruplicatum strain PR-6. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 88:50–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cerniglia CE, Baalen CV, Gibson DT (1980) Metabolism of naphthalene by cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain JCM. J Gen Microbiol 116:485–494Google Scholar
  20. Chandra R, Saxena G, Kumar V (2015) Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In: Chandra R (ed) Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 1–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chikere CB, Obieze CC, Okerentugba P (2015) Molecular assessment of microbial species involved in the biodegradation of crude oil in saline Niger Delta sediments using bioreactors. J Bioremed Biodegr 6:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cojocaru P, Gusiatin ZM, Cretescu I (2016) Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn as single or mixed pollutants from soil by rape (Brassica napus). Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:10693–10701. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper M, Wagner A, Wondrousch D, Sonntag F, Sonnabend A, Brehm M, Schüürmann G, Adrian L (2015) Anaerobic microbial transformation of halogenated aromatics and fate prediction using electron density modeling. Environ Sci Technol 49:6018–6028. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cycoń M, Mrozik A, Piotrowska-Seget Z (2017) Bioaugmentation as a strategy for the remediation of pesticide-polluted soil: a review. Chemosphere 172:52–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. da Luz JMR, Paes SA, Ribeiro KVG, Mendes IR, Kasuya MCM (2015) Degradation of green polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus. PLoS One. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dadrasnia A, Agamuthu P (2013) Diesel fuel degradation from contaminated soil by Dracaena reflexa using organic waste supplementation. J Jpn Petrol Inst 56:236–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dandan W, Huixin L, Feng H, Xia W (2007) Role of earthworm-straw interactions on phytoremediation of Cu contaminated soil by ryegrass. Acta Ecol Sin 27:1292–1298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Das K, Mukherjee AK (2007) Crude petroleum-oil biodegradation efficiency of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from a petroleum-oil contaminated soil from North-East India. Bioresour Technol 98:1339–1345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Das C, Naseera K, Ram A, Meena RM, Ramaiah N (2016) Bioremediation of tannery wastewater by a salt-tolerant strain of Chlorella vulgaris. J Appl Phycol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Demeter MA, Lemire JA, Mercer SM, Turner RJ (2017) Screening selectively harnessed environmental microbial communities for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in moving bed biofilm reactors. Bioresour Technol 228:116–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Devers-Lamrani M, Pesce S, Rouard N, Martin-Laurent F (2014) Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments. Chemosphere 117:208–215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elias SH, Mohamed M, Nor-Anuar A, Muda K, Hassan MAHM, Othman MN, Chelliapan S (2014) Ceramic industry wastewater treatment by rhizofiltration system-application of water hyacinth bioremediation. Inst Integr Omics Appl Biotechnol J 5:6–14Google Scholar
  33. Emenike CU, Liew W, Fahmi MG, Jalil KN, Pariathamby A, Hamid FS (2017) Optimal removal of heavy metals from leachate contaminated soil using bioaugmentation process. Clean (Weinh) 45:1500802. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foght J (2008) Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons: pathways and prospects. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 15:93–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fuentes MS, Raimondo EE, Amoroso MJ, Benimeli CS (2017) Removal of a mixture of pesticides by a Streptomyces consortium: influence of different soil systems. Chemosphere 173:359–367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. García-Delgado C, Alfaro-Barta I, Eymar E (2015) Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 285:259–266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garg N, Lata P, Jit S, Sangwan N, Singh AK, Dwivedi V, Niharika N, Kaur J, Saxena A, Dua A, Nayyar N, Kohli P, Geueke B, Kunz P, Rentsch D, Holliger C, Kohler HPE, Lal R (2016) Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Biodegradation 27:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gautam S, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN, Saxena G (2017) Pollutants in tannery wastewater, pharmacological effects and bioremediation approaches for human health protection and environmental safety. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 369–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaza S, Felgner A, Otto J, Kushmaro A, Ben-Dov E, Tiehm A (2015) Biodegradation of chloro- and bromobenzoic acids: effect of milieu conditions and microbial community analysis. J Hazard Mater 287:24–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gewert B, Plassmann MM, MacLeod M (2015) Pathways for degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment. Environ Sci Process Impact 17:1513–1521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ghosal D, Ghosh S, Dutta TK, Ahn Y (2016) Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review. Front Microbiol.
  42. Giovanella P, Cabral L, Costa AP, de Oliveira Camargo FA, Gianello C, Bento FM (2017) Metal resistance mechanisms in gram-negative bacteria and their potential to remove Hg in the presence of other metals. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 140:162–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gomez F, Sartaj M (2013) Field scale ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil under cold climate conditions. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 85:375–382. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goutam SP, Saxena G, Singh V, Yadav AK, Bharagava RN (2018) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. for photocatalytic degradation of tannery wastewater. Chem Eng J 336:386–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Govarthanan M, Mythili R, Selvankumar T, Kamala-Kannan S, Rajasekar A, Chang YC (2016) Bioremediation of heavy metals using an endophytic bacterium Paenibacillus sp. RM isolated from the roots of Tridax procumbens. 3. Biotech 6:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gregorio SD, Gentini A, Siracusa G, Becarelli S, Azaizeh H, Lorenzi R (2014) Phytomediated biostimulation of the autochthonous bacterial community for the acceleration of the depletion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated sediments. Biomed Res Int:891630. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guermouche M’rassi A, Bensalah F, Gury J, Duran R (2015) Isolation and characterization of different bacterial strains for bioremediation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:15332–15346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guillén-Jiménez F d M, Cristiani-Urbina E, Cancino-Díaz JC, Flores-Moreno JL, Barragán-Huerta BE (2012) Lindane biodegradation by the Fusarium verticillioides AT-100 strain, isolated from Agave tequilana leaves: Kinetic study and identification of metabolites. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 74:36–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta P, Diwan B (2016) Bacterial exopolysaccharide mediated heavy metal removal: a review on biosynthesis, mechanism and remediation strategies. Biotechnol Rep 13:58–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gupta A, Thakur IS (2014) Biodegradation of wastewater organic contaminants using Serratia sp. ISTVKR1 isolated from sewage sludge. Biochem Eng J 102:115–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gupta S, Pandey RA, Pawar SB (2016) Microalgal bioremediation of food-processing industrial wastewater under mixotrophic conditions: Kinetics and scale-up approach. Front Chem Sci Eng 10:499–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haritash AK, Kaushik CP (2009) Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review. J Hazard Mater 169:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Head IM, Jones DM, Röling WFM (2006) Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:173–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heidrich ES, Curtis TP, Dolfing J (2011) Determination of the internal chemical energy of wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 45:827–832. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hong Y-W, Yuan D-X, Lin Q-M, Yang T-L (2008) Accumulation and biodegradation of phenanthrene and fluoranthene by the algae enriched from a mangrove aquatic ecosystem. Mar Pollut Bull 56:1400–1405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huang G, Liu F, Yang Y, Deng W, Li S, Huang Y, Kong X (2015) Removal of ammonium-nitrogen from groundwater using a fully passive permeable reactive barrier with oxygen-releasing compound and clinoptilolite. J Environ Manag 154:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huang D, Hu C, Zeng G, Cheng M, Xu P, Gong X, Wang R, Xue W (2017) Combination of Fenton processes and biotreatment for wastewater treatment and soil remediation. Sci Total Environ 574:1599–1610. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ignatius A, Arunbabu V, Neethu J, Ramasamy EV (2014) Rhizofiltration of lead using an aromatic medicinal plant Plectranthus amboinicus cultured in a hydroponic nutrient film technique (NFT) system. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:13007–13016. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iori V, Pietrini F, Cheremisina A, Shevyakova NI, Radyukina N, Kuznetsov VV, Zacchini M (2013) Growth responses, metal accumulation and phytoremoval capability in Amaranthus plants exposed to nickel under hydroponics. Water Air Soil Pollut 224:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jebeli MA, Maleki A, Amoozegar MA, Kalantar E, Izanloo H, Gharibi F (2017) Bacillus flexus strain As-12, a new arsenic transformer bacterium isolated from contaminated water resources. Chemosphere 169:636–641. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jugder BE, Ertan H, Lee M, Manefield M, Marquis CP (2015) Reductive dehalogenases come of age in biological destruction of organohalides. Trends Biotechnol 33:595–610. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jugder BE, Ertan H, Bohl S, Lee M, Marquis CP, Manefield M (2016) Organohalide respiring bacteria and reductive dehalogenases: key tools in organohalide bioremediation. Front Microbiol 7:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kale (2015) Microbial degradation of plastics: a review. J Biochem Technol 6:952–961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kersten G, Majestic B, Quigley M (2017) Phytoremediation of cadmium and lead-polluted watersheds. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:225–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Khalid S, Hashmi I, Khan SJ (2016) Bacterial assisted degradation of chlorpyrifos: the key role of environmental conditions, trace metals and organic solvents. J Environ Manag 168:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Khudur LS, Shahsavari E, Miranda AF, Morrison PD, Nugegoda D, Ball AS (2015) Evaluating the efficacy of bioremediating a diesel-contaminated soil using ecotoxicological and bacterial community indices. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:14809–14819. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Koenig J, Lee J, Manefield M (2015) Aliphatic organochlorine degradation in subsurface environments. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 14:49–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Krueger MC, Harms H, Schlosser D (2015) Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:8857–8874. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lei AP, Hu ZL, Wong YS, Tam NRY (2007) Removal of fluoranthene and pyrene by different microalgal species. Bioresour Technol 98:273–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lemtiri A, Liénard A, Alabi T, Brostaux Y, Cluzeau D, Francis F, Colinet G (2016) Earthworms Eisenia fetida affect the uptake of heavy metals by plants Vicia faba and Zea mays in metal-contaminated soils. Appl Soil Ecol 104:67–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li Z, Yoshida N, Wang A, Nan J, Liang B, Zhang C, Zhang D, Suzuki D, Zhou X, Xiao Z, Katayama A (2015) Anaerobic mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol to CO2 by a synthetic microbial community comprising Clostridium, Dehalobacter, and Desulfatiglans. Bioresour Technol 176:225–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Li R, Dörfler U, Munch JC, Schroll R (2016) Enhanced degradation of isoproturon in an agricultural soil by a Sphingomonas sp. strain and a microbial consortium. Chemosphere 168:1169–1176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li X, Zhang X, Yang Y, Li B, Wu Y, Sun H, Yang Y (2016) Cadmium accumulation characteristics in turnip landraces from China and assessment of their phytoremediation potential for contaminated soils. Front Plant Sci 7:1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lim MW, Lau EV, Poh PE (2016) A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil – present works and future directions. Mar Pollut Bull 109:14–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu CL, Wang WP, Wu YH, Zhou ZW, Lai QL, Shao ZZ (2011) Multiple alkane hydroxylase systems in a marine alkane degrader, Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5. Environ Microbiol 13:1168–1178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ma L, Chen S, Yuan J, Yang P, Liu Y, Stewart K (2017) Rapid biodegradation of atrazine by Ensifer sp. strain and its degradation genes. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 116:133–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maila MP, Cloete TE (2005) The use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants – perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: a review. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 55:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Marinho G, Barbosa BCA, Rodrigues K, Aquino M, Pereira L (2017) Potential of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger AN 400 to degrade Atrazine in wastewaters. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 9:162–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martínez-Pascual E, Grotenhuis T, Solanas AM, Viñas M (2015) Coupling chemical oxidation and biostimulation: effects on the natural attenuation capacity and resilience of the native microbial community in alkylbenzene-polluted soil. J Hazard Mater 300:135–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Matamoros V, Uggetti E, García J, Bayona JM (2016) Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study. J Hazard Mater 301:197–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mattsson MK, Liu X, Yu D, Kontro MH (2015) Depth, soil type, water table, and site effects on microbial community composition in sediments of pesticide-contaminated aquifer. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:10263–10279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McGenity TJ, Folwell BD, McKew BA, Sanni GO (2012) Marine crude-oil biodegradation: a central role for interspecies interactions. Aquat Biosyst 8:10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McWatters RS, Wilkins D, Spedding T et al (2016) On site remediation of a fuel spill and soil reuse in Antarctica. Sci Total Environ 571:963–973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mesa J, Rodríguez-Llorente JD, Pajuelo E, Piedras JMB, Caviedes MA, Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E (2015) Moving closer towards restoration of contaminated estuaries: bioaugmentation with autochthonous rhizobacteria improves metal rhizoaccumulation in native Spartina maritima. J Hazard Mater 300:263–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mori T, Wang J, Tanaka Y, Nagai K, Kawagishi H, Hirai H (2017) Bioremediation of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida. J Hazard Mater 321:586–590. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nauendorf A, Krause S, Bigalke NK, Gorb EV, Gorb SN, Haeckel M, Wahl M, Treude T (2016) Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 103:168–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nijenhuis I, Kuntze K (2016) Anaerobic microbial dehalogenation of organohalides-state of the art and remediation strategies. Curr Opin Biotechnol 38:33–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nisha KN, Devi V, Varalakshmi P, Ashokkumar B (2015) Biodegradation and utilization of dimethylformamide by biofilm forming Paracoccus sp. strains MKU1 and MKU2. Bioresour Technol 188:9–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nwogu TP, Azubuike CC, Ogubgue CJ (2015) Enhanced bioremediation of soil artificially-contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons after amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (goat) manure. Biotechnol Res Int:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Philp JC, Atlas RM (2005) Bioremediation of contaminated soils and aquifers. In: Atlas RM, Philp JC (eds) Bioremediation: applied microbial solutions for real-world environmental cleanup. American Society for Microbiology. (ASM) Press, Washington, DC, pp 139–236Google Scholar
  91. Pradeep V, Subbaiah UM (2016) Use of Ca-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa for repeated batch and continuous degradation of Endosulfan. 3 Biotech 6:124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ravanbakhsh M, Ronaghi AM, Taghavi SM, Jousset A (2016) Screening for the next generation heavy metal hyperaccumulators for dryland decontamination. J Environ Chem Eng 4:2350–2355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Romero MC, Cazau MC, Giorgieri S, Arambarri AM (1998) Phenanthrene degradation by microorganisms isolated from a contaminated stream. Environ Pollut 101:355–359. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2015) Persistent organic pollutants and bacterial communities present during the treatment of tannery wastewater. In: Chandra R (ed) Environmental waste management, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 217–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2016) Ram Chandra: advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste. Clean Techn Environ Policy 18:979–980. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Saxena G, Bharagava RN (2017) Organic and inorganic pollutants in industrial wastes, their ecotoxicological effects, health hazards and bioremediation approaches. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 23–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Saxena G, Bharagava RN, Kaithwas G, Raj A (2015) Microbial indicators, pathogens and methods for their monitoring in water environment. J Water Health 13:319–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Saxena G, Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2016) Environmental pollution, toxicity profile and treatment approaches for tannery wastewater and its chemical pollutants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 240:31–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Saxena G, Purchase D, Mulla SI, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2018) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: environmental considerations, field studies, sustainability and future prospects. J Environ Manag 105:103–120Google Scholar
  100. Segneanu AE, Orbeci C, Lazau C, Sfirloaga P, Vlazan P, Bandas C, Grozescu I (2013) Waste water treatment methods. In: Elshorbagy W (ed) Water treatment. ISBN: 978-953-51-0928-0, InTech. Available from: Google Scholar
  101. Shah AA, Fariha H, Abdul H, Safia A (2008) Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv 26:2467–2650. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shannon JM, Hauser LW, Liu X, Parkin GF, Mattes TE, Just GL (2015) Partial nitritation ANAMMOX in submerged attached growth bioreactors with smart aeration at 20 °C. Environ Sci Process Impacts 17:81–89. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sheik S, Chandrashekar KR, Swaroop K, Somashekarappa HM (2015) Biodegradation of gamma irradiated low density polyethylene and polypropylene by endophytic fungi. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 105:21–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shelton DR, Khader S, Karns JS, Pogell BM (1996) Metabolism of twelve herbicides by Streptomyces. Biodegradation 7:129–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Silva IS, Grossman M, Durrant LR (2009) Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2-7 rings) under microaerobic and very-low-oxygen conditions by soil fungi. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 63:224–229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simpanen S, Mäkelä R, Mikola J, Romantschuk M (2016) Bioremediation of creosote contaminated soil in both laboratory and field scale: investigating the ability of methyl-β-cyclodextrin to enhance biostimulation. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 106:117–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Singh JS, Abhilash PC, Singh HB, Singh RP, Singh DP (2011) Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives. Gene 480:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Singh P, Saini HS, Raj M (2016) Rhamnolipid mediated enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial consortium in soil-water system. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 134:156–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sivan A (2011) New perspectives in plastic biodegradation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:422–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Somtrakoon K, Chouychai W, Lee H (2014) Phytoremediation of anthracene and fluoranthene contaminated soil by Luffa acutangula. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 8:221–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Throne-Holst M, Wentzel A, Ellingsen TE, Kotlar HK, Zotchev SB (2007) Identification of novel genes involved in long-chain n-alkane degradation by Acinetobacter sp. strain DSM 17874. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3327–3332. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tong H, Liu C, Li F, Luo C, Chen M, Hu M (2015) The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing. J Hazard Mater 298:252–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ueno R, Wada S, Ureno N (2008) Repeated batch culture of hydrocarbon-degrading, micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam. Can J Microbiol 54:66–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Varjani SJ (2017) Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioresour Technol 223:277–286. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Varjani SJ, Upasani VN (2016) Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oleophilic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514. Bioresour Technol 222:195–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Varjani SJ, Upasani VN (2017) Critical review on biosurfactant analysis, purification and characterization using rhamnolipid as a model biosurfactant. Bioresour Technol 232:389–397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vergani L, Mapelli F, Zanardini E, Terzaghi E, Di Guardo A, Morosini C, Raspa G, Borin S (2016) Phyto-rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soils: an outlook on plant-microbe beneficial interactions. Sci Total Environ 575:1395–1406. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Villaverde J, Rubio-Bellido M, Merchán F, Morillo E (2017) Bioremediation of diuron contaminated soils by a novel degrading microbial consortium. J Environ Manag 188:379–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Warshawsky D, Cody T, Radike M, Reilman R, Schumann B, LaDow K, Schneider J (1995) Biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic analogs by several green algae and other algal species under gold and white light. Chem Biol Interact 97:131–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. WerheniAmmeri R, MokniTlili S, Mehri I, Badi S, Hassen A (2016) Pentachlorophenol biodegradation by Citrobacter freundii isolated from forest contaminated soil. Water Air Soil Pollut.
  121. Whyte LG, Bourbonnière L, Greer CW (1997) Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by psychrotrophic Pseudomonas strains possessing both alkanes (alk) and naphthalene (nah) catabolic pathways. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:3719–3723Google Scholar
  122. Wilkes H, Buckel W, Golding BT, Rabus R (2016) Metabolism of hydrocarbons in n-Alkane utilizing anaerobic bacteria. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 26:138–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wu M, Li W, Dick WA, Ye X, Chen K, Kost D, Chen L (2017) Bioremediation of hydrocarbon degradation in a petroleum-contaminated soil and microbial population and activity determination. Chemosphere 169:124–130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Xia Z-Y, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Yan X, Li S-P, Gu T, Jiang J-D (2017) Biodegradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a new isolated strain of Achromobactersp. LZ35. Curr Microbiol 74:193–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Yang Y, Yang J, Wu WM, Zhao J, Song Y, Gao L, Yang R, Jiang L (2015a) Biodegradation and mineralization of polystyrene by plastic-eating mealworms: part 1. Chemical and physical characterization and isotopic tests. Environ Sci Technol 49:12080–12086. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yang Y, Yang J, Wu WM, Zhao J, Song Y, Gao L, Yang R, Jiang L (2015b) Biodegradation and mineralization of polystyrene by plastic-eating mealworms: part 2. Role of gut microorganisms. Environ Sci Technol 49:12087–12093. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yao Z, Li J, Xie H, Yu C (2012) Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Procedia Environ Sci 16:722–729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zhang G, Ouyang X, Li H, Fu Z, Chen J (2016) Bioremoval of antimony from contaminated waters by a mixed batch culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 115:148–155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhao Y, Yao J, Yuan Z, Wang T, Zhang Y, Wang F (2016) Bioremediation of Cd by strain GZ-22 isolated from mine soil based on biosorption and microbially induced carbonate precipitation. Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Chibueze Azubuike
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chioma Blaise Chikere
    • 1
  • Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasili
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Port HarcourtPort HarcourtNigeria

Personalised recommendations