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Arsenic Contamination in Environment, Ecotoxicological and Health Effects, and Bioremediation Strategies for Its Detoxification

  • Manoj Kumar
  • Anoop Yadav
  • A. L. Ramanathan
Chapter

Abstract

The present day global environmental pollution is resultant of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and several other anthropogenic activities, which involve the huge application of trace metals. Among the trace metals, Arsenic (As) is known as the leading toxicant to the environment worldwide and having the various toxic effects on human and animal health. Exposure of As causes various types of health effects like dermal and neurological problems, reproductive and pregnancy effects, cardiovascular effects, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the respiratory system, multiorgan cancers, etc. The persistence of As in the environment may pollute or contaminate soils and aqueous system as both natural components or as the result of human activity. In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for detoxification of trace metal poisoning has become a major focus of researchers. It has been investigated in order to find an eco-friendly and recyclable technique for the removal of trace elements contamination from the natural resources. Bioremediation process in this regards is an option that offers the possibility to reduce or render trace and toxic elements such as As using plants and microbes. Among the various bioremediation processes, phytoremediation and bioremediation using microbes are quite effective. Phytoremediation includes the removal of contaminants with the help of green plants, while the microbial bioremediation includes the removal of trace and toxic elements by microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast and algae) as sorbents. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the As contamination in the environment and also the mechanism of removal of the As from the contaminated resources by the potent application of plants and microbes.

Keywords

Arsenic contamination Groundwater Ecotoxicological Phytoremediation Bioremediation Fluvial regions 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manoj Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anoop Yadav
    • 1
  • A. L. Ramanathan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth, Environment and Space StudiesCentral University of HaryanaMahendergarhIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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