Small Teleosts Provide Hints Toward Understanding the Evolution of the Central Regulatory Mechanisms of Reproduction

  • Shinji KandaEmail author


Reproduction is one of the most important characteristics of all living organisms. In vertebrates, interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad are important for the regulation of reproduction. In spite of the wide variety of reproductive traits among species, the current knowledge regarding the central regulation of reproduction has mainly been acquired from mammalian studies until recently. This approach does not provide the information what is and is not common in vertebrates. Recently, molecular genetic tools became available that can be rather easily applied to the model teleost species, medaka and zebrafish. In particular, when these techniques are combined with classical surgeries developed in the twentieth century, medaka became one of the most powerful models for understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Moreover, single-cell physiological approaches, such as patch-clamp electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging, can be performed in established transgenic lines to unveil the regulatory mechanisms at the cellular level. By combining such physiological results and results from recently developed genome editing techniques, mechanism of central regulation of reproduction has been getting clear in teleosts. In this chapter, I will discuss recent developments in understanding the central regulatory mechanisms of reproduction in teleosts in comparison with the knowledge in mammals. By comparing these two classes, a broader picture of the evolution of reproductive regulation in vertebrates will emerge.


GnRH Reproduction Hypothalamus Pituitary Kisspeptin Estrogen LH FSH 



Arcuate nucleus


Anteroventral periventricular


Cardiac myosin light chain 2


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats


Follicle-stimulating hormone


Follicle-stimulating hormone β


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone


Glycoprotein α

HPG axis

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis


Luteinizing hormone


Luteinizing hormone β




Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin


Preoptic area


Transcription activator-like effector nuclease


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoBunkyo, TokyoJapan

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