Fish in Space Shedding Light on Gravitational Biology
Space flight in an environment with reduced gravity has severe effects on the body. Astronauts suffer from a significant decrease in bone mineral density during space missions, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for such changes in bone density are unclear. To identify these mechanisms, unique experiments on medaka fish were performed twice at the International Space Station (ISS). One was a two-month long experiment for the analysis of bone growth, which revealed a decrease in the mineral density of pharyngeal bones. Another was a short-term experiment for live imaging of transgenic medaka lines and transcriptome analysis during 8 days, which revealed an increase in the expression levels of five genes. Overall, these studies on medaka fish provided an initial explanation of the process.
KeywordsMedaka Bone Gravity International Space Station Osteoclast Osteoblast
This work was supported by a grant-in-aid for scientific research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (Grant No. JP16K15778, JP16H01635 (Group No. A01), JP18H04986 (Group No. A01)).
- Crookes W (1987) Address by the president. Proc Soc Psych Res 12:338–355Google Scholar
- David H (1963) Russians discuss space radiation in conference. Missiles and Rockets 21:34Google Scholar
- JAXA homepage. http://iss.jaxa.jp/en/kiboexp/pm/aqh/. Accessed 23 Apr 2017
- Parin VV, Pravetskiy VN, Gurovskiy NN et al (1968) Some biomedical results of the experiment performed onboard the COSMOS-110 biosatellite. Space biology 2:7–14Google Scholar
- Schenk R, Merz WA, Muhlbauer R et al (1973) Effect of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) and dichloromethylene diphosphonate (cl 2 MDP) on the calcification and resorption of cartilage and bone in the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of rats. Calcif Tissue Res 11:196–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simmons DJ, Ruffell JE, Winter F et al (1983) Effect of spaceflight on the non-weight-bearing bones of rat skeleton. Am J Phys 244:319–326Google Scholar
- Thompson D (1917) In: Bonner JT (ed) On growth and form. Cambridge University, Cambridge, pp 32–37Google Scholar