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Application of Modern Geophysical Techniques for Identification of Groundwater Potential Areas

  • Bimalendu B. Bhattacharya
Chapter

Abstract

One of the scientific approaches for the preparation of an improved geohydrological model is to incorporate systematic geophysical investigations in the program. The electrical and electromagnetic methods are widely used. In large-scale hydrological projects, the geophysical studies are broadly applied mainly in the following ways: (1) airborne electromagnetic survey as groundwater in most of the areas is quite conductive, ranging from 20 to 120 mS/m, for mapping the aquifers in a regional scale and (2) ground electrical and electromagnetic survey. Multifrequency airborne EM surveys are employed as a tool to study aquifer vulnerability. In electrical methods VES and 2D resistivity imaging is extensively used in most of the hydrological problems. The technique of thematic overlays to demarcate the groundwater potential zones in a hard rock terrain in a drought-prone area has been discussed. 2D electrical imaging delineated aquifers in water scarcity hard rock terrain of Deccan trap in Central India, and the yield has been 15,900 l per hour. Self-potential (SP) measurements were made in Armenia where it was required to lower the groundwater level whose higher level was due to the presence of saline water in a major hydroelectric installation area. The SP profile measured is practically a mirror image of the cone of depression showing a better indication of groundwater level than that obtained by the sparse network of piezometers. Mise-a-la-masse method may be used for hydrogeological investigations for finding flow of ground by lowering one of the current electrodes covered by a bag of salt in the aquifer zone. Equipotential contours drawn sometime after charging will show change in shape – from circular to oval, elongated in the direction of flow of groundwater.

Keywords

Groundwater Electromagnetic survey VES 2D resistivity imaging Self-potential Mise-a-la-masse method 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bimalendu B. Bhattacharya
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Centre for Space PhysicsKolkataIndia

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