Comparison of BOD5 Removal in Water Hyacinth and Duckweed by Genetic Programming

  • Ramkumar Mahalakshmi
  • Chandrasekaran SivapragasamEmail author
  • Sankararajan Vanitha
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 106)


In this study, macrophyte-based plants such as duckweed (Lemna Minor) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) are considered for the removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in domestic wastewater. The maximum value of BOD5 removal for duckweed and water hyacinth is almost the same (99%). Experiments are conducted in order to get a wide range of data for mathematical modeling. BOD5, retention time (t), and wastewater temperature (Tw) are the parameters considered for modeling, and a comparison is made between the models of these plants. This study reveals that there are similar functionality relationships that exist for both the plants between the parameters BOD5 and retention time on the removal of BOD5. This function is found to be linear. It is also revealed that Tw is also an important parameter as it influences the treatment systems. Genetic programming (GP) based modeling is effective to understand the wetland system by comparing the removal of BOD5.


Genetic programming Duckweed and hyacinth BOD5 removal Wastewater temperature 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramkumar Mahalakshmi
    • 1
  • Chandrasekaran Sivapragasam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sankararajan Vanitha
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Water Technology, Department of Civil EngineeringKalasalingam Academy of Research and EducationKrishnankoilIndia

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