• Shangzhu JinEmail author
  • Qiang Shen
  • Jun Peng


Approximate reasoning (AR) Shen and Leitch in IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 23:1038–1061 (1993), [1], Synthese 30:407–408 (1975), [2]) is a group of methodologies and techniques, which concentrate on the processing of inexact information containing imprecision and uncertainty in artificial intelligence (AI) and computational intelligence (CI).


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Electrical and Information EngineeringChongqing University of Science and TechnologyChongqingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Computer ScienceAberystwyth UniversityAberystwythUK

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