Borders in Europe: From Westphalia to Schengen

  • Krishnendra Meena


Krishnendra Meena argues that Europe has seen a dramatic transformation of its borders over the last century—from the application of hard notions of territorial sovereignty enshrined in the Treaty of Westphalia to allowing free mobility of people, goods, services and capital across national borders in the European Union. A monetary union functions effectively for its members and the Schengen Agreement allows for free mobility in the area. However, the chapter traces the history of the changing nature of borders in Europe since the Second World War and emphasises that this free mobility inside the Union is in stark contrast to the obstacles it creates for aspiring migrants and refugees to the EU. Bordering practices at the edge of Europe are among the most severe in the world.


Borders Bordering European Union Refugees Schengen area Free mobility 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishnendra Meena
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for International Politics, Organization and DisarmamentJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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