Advertisement

The Changing Contours of Europe–Russia Relations

  • Dinoj K. Upadhyay
Chapter

Abstract

Dinoj K. Upadhyay shows that Russia, after the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the USSR, sought to develop a closer partnership with Western countries and organisations. However, early enthusiasm did not last long and a disillusioned Russia altered the course of its foreign policy from a Western orientation towards its traditional partners. At the turn of the twenty-first century, President Putin adopted a pragmatic approach of cooperation with the West in the framework of the fight against international terrorism. Nevertheless, Russia asserted itself again after alleged European intervention in the post-Soviet space. Europe and Russia have taken measures and counter-measures amid escalating tension in Eastern Europe following the crisis in Ukraine. Despite a tense geopolitical environment and differences over regional and global issues, however, Europe and Russia have continued their political interactions.

Keywords

European Union Russia Vladimir Putin Ukraine Partnership Geopolitics 

References

  1. Bhattacharya, A. (2004). The Fallacy in the Russia-India-China Triangle. Strategic Analysis, 28(2). Retrieved April 2004, from https://idsa.in/strategicanalysis/TheFallacyintheRussiaIndiaChinaTriangle_abhattacharya_0404.
  2. Buckley, N. Neighbours Fear “Trojan Horse” as Russia Readies War Games. Financial Times. Retrieved August 27, 2017, from https://www.ft.com/content/f284d7ae-89b2-11e7-8bb1-5ba57d47eff7.
  3. Clover, C. (2008). Russia Announces ‘Spheres of Interest’. Financial Times. Retrieved August 31, 2008, from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e9469744-7784-11dd-be24-0000779fd18c.html?ft_site=falcon&desktop=true#axzz4lPOBR0pU.
  4. Delegation of the European Union to Russia. (n.d.). The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Retrieved from http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/delegations/russia/eu_russia/political_relations/legal_framework/index_en.htm.
  5. Dobriansky, P. J. (2000). Russian Foreign Policy: Promise and Peril. The Washington Quarterly, 23(1), 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donald Trump Tells NATO Allies to Pay up at Brussels Talks. BBC. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-40037776.
  7. Donaldson, R. H., & Nogee, J. L. (2005). The Foreign Policy of Russia: Changing Systems, Enduring Interests (3rd ed. p. 258). New York: M E Sharpe.Google Scholar
  8. Emmanual Macron Proposes New Law Against Fake News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from http://www.dw.com/en/emmanual-macron-proposes-new-law-against-fake-news/a-42019719.
  9. Energy Cooperation in Focus, India and Russia Vow to Widen Scope of Bilateral Ties. Business Standard. Retrieved June 1, 2017, from http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/energy-cooperation-in-focus-india-and-russia-vow-to-widen-scope-of-bilateral-ties-117060101808_1.html.
  10. Eurlex. (2010). Partnership and Cooperation Agreements (PCAs): Russia, Eastern Europe, the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:r17002.
  11. Euronews. (2017). Zapad 2017: What You Need to Know About Belarus and Russia’s Military Exercises. Retrieved September 15, 2017, from http://www.euronews.com/2017/09/15/zapad-2017-what-you-need-to-know-about-russias-military-exercises.
  12. European Commission. (2011). The EU-Russia Partnership – Basic Facts and Figures, MEMO/11/104. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-11-104_en.htm.
  13. France’s Macron Refuses to Recognise Crimea ‘Annexation’. France 24. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from http://www.france24.com/en/20170626-france-macron-refuses-recognise-crimea-annexation-ukraine-poroshenko.
  14. Gabuev, A. (2016). Friends with Benefits? Russian-Chinese Relations After the Ukraine Crisis. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://carnegie.ru/2016/06/29/friends-with-benefits-russian-chinese-relations-after-ukraine-crisis-pub-63953.
  15. Gorbachev, M. (2014). Gorbachev’s Full Speech During the Celebrations of the 25th Anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall. Russia in Global Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2017, from http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/book/Gorbachevs-full-speech-during-the-celebrations-of-the-25th-Anniversary-of-the-Fall-of-the-Berlin-Wal.
  16. Gupta, A. (2017). Deeper Defence & Security Cooperation with Russia Enhances India’s Strategic Choices. The Economic Times. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/deeper-defence-security-cooperation-with-russia-enhances-indias-strategic-choices/articleshow/62200689.cms.
  17. Haukkala, H. (2018). Negative Mutual Interdependence? The Clashing Perceptions of EU-Russia Economic Relations. In T. Casier & J. de Bardeleben (Eds.), EU-Russia Relations in Crisis: Understanding Diverging Perceptions (pp. 53–71). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Ivanov, I. (2001). The New Russian Identity: Innovation and Continuity in Russian Foreign Policy. The Washington Quarterly, 24(3), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jack, A. (2006). Inside Putin’s Russia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lawrence, H. (2017). Boris Johnson Claims Russia’s Hostility to UK and West Is as Bad as Cold War. The Independent. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/boris-johnson-latest-russia-uk-west-hostility-cold-war-putin-foreign-secretary-a8115086.html.
  21. Luhn, A. (2017). Montenegro Finds Itself at Heart of Tensions with Russia as It Joins Nato. The Guardian. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/may/25/montenegro-tensions-russia-joins-nato-member.
  22. Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), India. (2017). India-Russia Relations. Retrieved May 2017, from http://mea.gov.in/Portal/ForeignRelation/India_Russia_May.pdf.
  23. Montenegro Ratifies NATO Membership in Historic Shift to Western Alliance. The Guardian. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/28/montenegro-ratifies-nato-membership-in-historic-shift-to-western-alliance.
  24. NATO Alliance Starts Biggest Military Exercise Amid Tensions with Russia. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved from http://www.dw.com/en/nato-alliance-starts-biggest-military-exercise-amid-tensions-with-russia/a-19310946.
  25. NATO’s Jens Stoltenberg Warns Russia During Baltic Military Dills. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from http://www.dw.com/en/natos-jens-stoltenberg-warns-russia-during-baltic-military-drills/a-39339970.
  26. President of Ukraine. (2017). Meeting Between the Presidents of Ukraine and France: We Are Determined to Expand the Agenda of Our Bilateral Cooperation, President of Ukraine. Retrieved June 26, 2017, from http://www.president.gov.ua/en/news/mi-rishuche-nalashtovani-na-rozshirennya-poryadku-dennogo-na-42066.
  27. Rose, M., & Dyomkin, D. (2017). After Talks, France’s Macron Hits Out at Russian Media, Putin Denies Hacking. Reuters. Retrieved May 30, 2017, from https://in.reuters.com/article/france-russia-copy/after-talks-frances-macron-hits-out-at-russian-media-putin-denies-hacking-idINKBN18Q08S.
  28. RT. (2017). Wars Not Diminishing’: How Putin’s Iconic 2007 Munich Speech Sounds Today. RT. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from https://www.rt.com/news/376901-putin-munich-speech-2007/.
  29. Sanders IV, L. (2017). NATO Chief Predicts Increased Dialogue With Russia in 2018. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved December 29, 2017, from http://www.dw.com/en/nato-chief-predicts-increased-dialogue-with-russia-in-2018/a-41966005.
  30. The Kremlin. (2003). Interview with the ANSA Italian News Agency, Corrieredella Sera Newspaper and the RAI Television Company. Retrieved from http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/22185.
  31. The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), GoI. (2017, June 1). Saint Petersburg Declaration by the Russian Federation and the Republic of India: A Vision for the 21st Century.Google Scholar
  32. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. (2017). Comment by the Information and Press Department on the Completion of the Procedure of Montenegro’s Accession to NATO. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/2775720.
  33. Transcript: Donald Trump Expounds on His Foreign Policy Views. (2017, March 26). New York Times.Google Scholar
  34. Trenin, D. (2014). The Ukraine Crisis and the Resumption of Great-Power Rivalry. Carnegie. Retrieved July 2014, from http://carnegieendowment.org/files/ukraine_great_power_rivalry2014.pdf.
  35. Tsygankov, A. P. (2013). Russia’s Foreign Policy: Change and Continuity in National Identity. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. UK and Poland Play Down EU Problems to Focus on Russia. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from http://www.dw.com/en/uk-and-poland-play-down-eu-problems-to-focus-on-russia/a-41896227.
  37. Ukraine Ceasefire: New Minsk Agreement Key Points. BBC. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31436513.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinoj K. Upadhyay
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Council of World Affairs, Sapru HouseNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations