Benign Tracheal/Bronchial Stenosis

  • Zongming Li
  • Hongwu Wang
  • Gauri Mukhiya


Benign stenosis of the trachea and bronchi presents with symptoms such as productive (wet/chesty) cough and dyspnea, and limits the patient’s working capacity and quality of life. Severe cases may even result in respiratory failure and death. In the Western world, benign tracheal stenosis is a complication of tracheal intubation, tracheal surgery, lung transplantation, and other related factors [1]. In China, benign stenosis is mainly due to endobronchial tuberculosis [2]; however, the incidence of iatrogenic benign tracheal stenosis is rising, with the development of modern medicine, and increasing use of tracheal intubation, tracheotomy, and other types of respiratory intensive rescue technology [3].


  1. 1.
    Li Y, Yao XP, Bai C, et al. Therapeutic efficacy analysis of bronchoscopic interventional therapy on severe tuberculous main bronchial stenosis complicated with unilateral atelectasis. Chin J Tuberculosis Respir Dis. 2011;34(6):454–8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Han XW, Wu G, Ma J, et al. The technique study and primary clinical application of inverted Y-shaped self-expandable metal airway stent. J Interv Radiol. 2007;16(2):92–4.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu X. Stenting of major airway constriction. J Interv Radiol. 2002;11(4):278–80.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang H, Zhang H. Diagnosis and endoluminal treatment of central airway stenosis. Chin J Lung Cancer. 2011;14(9):739.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan T, Qin H, Guo-Kun AO, et al. Implantation of inverted Y-shaped metal stent in treatment of tracheobronchial malacia induced by relapsing polychondritis. Chin J Interv Imaging Ther. 2010;7(5):539–42.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miyazu Y, Miyazawa T, Kurimoto N, Iwamoto Y, Ishida A, Kanoh K, Kohno N. Endobronchial ultrasonography in the diagnosis and treatment of relapsing polychondritis with tracheobronchial malacia. Chest. 2003;124(6):2393–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakajima T, Sekine Y, Yasuda M, et al. Long-term management of polychondritis with serial tracheobronchial stents. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(6):24–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meng C, Yu HF, Ni CY, et al. Balloon dilatation bronchoplasty in management of bronchial stenosis in children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;48(4):301–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iwamoto Y, Miyazawa T, Kurimoto N, et al. Interventional bronchoscopy in the management of airway stenosis due to tracheobronchial tuberculosis. Chest. 2004;126(4):1344–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Low SY, Hsu A, Eng P. Interventional bronchoscopy for tuberculous tracheobronchial stenosis. Eur Respir J. 2004;24(3):345–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu R, Wu Q, Chen XP, et al. Clinical classification of 288 cases of bronchial tuberculosis based on an expert consensus. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2010;33(12):896–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hellmich B, Hering S, Duchna HW, et al. Airway manifestations of relapsing poly chondritis: treatment with cyclophosphaideand placement of bronchial stents. Z Rheumatol. 2003;62(1):73–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takahashi K, Inoue H, Sadamatsu H, et al. Relapsing polychondritis. Int J Clin Med. 2015;6(7):439–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dutau H, Toutblanc B, Lamb C, et al. Use of the Dumon Y-stent in the management of malignant disease involving the car ina: a retrospective review of 86 patients. Chest. 2004;126(3):951–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sarodia BD, Dasgupta A, Mehta AC. Management of airway manifestations of relapsing polychondritis: case reports and review of literature. Chest. 1999;116(6):1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pillai JB, Smith J, Hasan A, et al. Review of pediatric airway malacia and its management, with emphasis on stenting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;27(1):35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shitrit D, Kuchuk M, Zismanov V, et al. Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation of tracheobronchial stenosis: long-term follow-up. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;38(2):198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jeong BH, Um SW, Suh GY, et al. Results of interventional bronchoscopy in the management of postoperative tracheobronchial stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144(1):217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Onotai LO, Ibekwe U. The pattern of cut throat injuries in the University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Portharcourt. Niger J Med. 2010;19(3):264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thornton RH, Gordon RL, Kerlan RK, et al. Outcomes of tracheobronchial stent placement for benign disease. Radiology. 2006;240(1):273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma J, Han X, Wu G, et al. Outcomes of temporary partially covered stent placement for benign tracheobronchial stenosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2016;39(8):1144–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Igarashi A, Sato M, Seino K. Acute respiratory failures caused by post-tracheotomy tracheomalacia. Masui. 2014;63(2):164.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zongming Li
    • 1
  • Hongwu Wang
    • 2
  • Gauri Mukhiya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory MedicineChina Meitan General HospitalBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations