Pulmonary Emphysema

  • Yong Fan
  • Tian Jiang


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the disease characterized with airflow limitation that is chronically progressive and irreversible. Its high disability and mortality rate has a tendency to increase year by year, leading to heavy social economic burden [1, 2]. As a result, the disease is treated as a public health issue worldwide. Chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema is the most common clinical manifestation. In clinics, pulmonary emphysema manifests progressive and irreversible airflow limitation. Pathologically, pulmonary emphysema shows elasticity attenuation and overexpansion in distal airway of terminal bronchioles and damage in alveolar walls and bronchiolar walls with no obvious fibrosis. An investigation of 20,245 adults in 7 regions showed that 8.2% of the adults aged over 40 years old suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema. As estimated by the Global Burden of Diseases Study, it will be the third leading cause of death worldwide in 2020. The data of the World Bank and the World Health Organization show that the disease will be the fifth weightiest economic burden all over the world in 2020 [3, 4].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yong Fan
    • 1
  • Tian Jiang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGeneral Hospital, Tianjin Medical UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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