Tracheobronchial Histology, Anatomy, and Physiology

  • Hongqi Zhang
  • Xinwei Han
  • Lihong Zhang


The respiratory tract, an important part of the respiratory system, is also called an airway because it is the passage that air travels in through the lungs. It is composed of the nose, pharynx, larynx, infraglottic cavity, trachea, and bronchi. Separated from cricoid cartilage, the upper part of the respiratory tract consisting of the nose, pharynx, larynx, and infraglottic cavity, it is called the upper respiratory tract, while the lower part of the respiratory tract includes trachea and all levels of bronchi below cricoid cartilage.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongqi Zhang
    • 1
  • Xinwei Han
    • 2
  • Lihong Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Histology and EmbryologyFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Interventional RadiologyThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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