Advertisement

DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Forensic Application: Past, Present, and Future

  • Nisha Bara
  • Ramkishan Kumawat
  • Jahangir Imam
Chapter

Abstract

The discovery of DNA fingerprinting has revolutionized the world of forensic science and started the wave that it can be helpful in solving crime cases and assisting the criminal justice system. It is one of the milestones in solving crimes with the help of DNA-associated polymorphisms in human beings. The DNA fingerprinting started with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP), which was tedious and time consuming but opened the doors for new developments in the arena. Later, with the development of CODIS, STR markers and now NGS have sped up the process of DNA profiling with better discriminating power and enhanced accuracy. The markers being used are short tandem repeats (STRs), species-specific primers, SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), NGS (next-generation sequencing), Y-STR, X-STR, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The identification of human from the DNA profile, generated through the Genetic Analyzer (by electrophoresis of amplified DNA), is the most favored method which is often used in sexual assault cases, paternity disputes, burning, and murder cases as it is believed that DNA is unique to each individual. In recent years, completely automated DNA-profiling system and diverse genetic markers have been introduced. The rapid DNA instruments integrate different steps such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, separation, detection, sizing, and genotyping of the products on one single platform. This chapter is an insight on the development of DNA fingerprinting over the years and its application in forensic sciences.

Keywords

DNA fingerprinting DNA marker NGS Forensic investigation 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to The Director, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Ranchi, Jharkhand, for the support.

References

  1. 1.
    Bender K, Schneider PM, Rittner C (2000) Application of mtDNA sequence analysis in forensic casework for the identification of human remains. Forensic Sci Int 113(1–3):103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Budowle B, Moretti TR, Niezgoda SJ, Brown BL (1998) CODIS and PCR-based short tandem repeat loci: law enforcement tools. In Proceedings from the second European Symposium on Human Identification. http://www.promega.com/~/media/files/resources/con
  3. 3.
    Butler JM (2015) The future of forensic DNA analysis. Phil Trans R Soc B 370:20140252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Butler JM, McCord BR, Jung JM, Wilson MR, Budowle B, Allen RO (1994) Quantitation of PCR products by capillary electrophoresis using laser fluorescence. J Chromatogr B 658:271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Butler JM, Shen Y, McCord BR (2003) The development of reduced size STR amplicons as tools for analysis of degraded DNA. J Forensic Sci 48:1054–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coble MD, Butler JM (2005) Characterization of new miniSTR loci to aid analysis of degraded DNA. J Forensic Sci 50:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edelmann J, Hering S, Kuhlisch E, Szibor R (2003) Validation of the STR DXS7424 and the linkage situation on the X-chromosome. Forensic Sci Int 125:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ginther C, Issel-Tarver L, King MC (1992) Identifying individuals by sequencing mitochondrial DNA from teeth. Nat Genet 2:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V, Thein SL (1985) Hypervariable ‘minisatellite’ regions in human DNA. Nature 314:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kline MC, Vallone PM, Redman JW, Duewer DL, Calloway CD, Butler JM (2005) Mitochondrial DNA typing screens with control region and coding region SNPs. J Forensic Sci 50:377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nothnagel, M., Szibor, R., Vollrath, O., Augustin, C., Edelmann, J., Geppert, M. et al. Collaborative genetic mapping of 12 forensic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on the human X chromosome. Forensic Sci Int Genet 2012; doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.02.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seo SB, King JL, Warshauer DH, Davis CP, Ge J, Budowle B (2013) Single nucleotide polymorphism typing with massively parallel sequencing for human identification. Int J Legal Med 127:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sparkes R et al (1996) The validation of a 7-locus multiplex STR test for use in forensic casework. (I). Mixtures, ageing, degradation and species studies. Int J Legal Med 109:186–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sullivan KM, Hopgood R, Gill P (1992) Identification of human remains by amplification and automated sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. Int J Legal Med 105:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Werrett DJ (1997) The national DNA database. Forensic Sci Int 88:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisha Bara
    • 1
  • Ramkishan Kumawat
    • 2
  • Jahangir Imam
    • 1
  1. 1.DNA Fingerprinting Unit, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Department of Home, Jail and Disaster ManagementGovernment of JharkhandRanchiIndia
  2. 2.State Forensic Science LaboratoryJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations