DNA Fingerprinting Techniques for Forensic Application: Past, Present, and Future

  • Nisha Bara
  • Ramkishan Kumawat
  • Jahangir Imam


The discovery of DNA fingerprinting has revolutionized the world of forensic science and started the wave that it can be helpful in solving crime cases and assisting the criminal justice system. It is one of the milestones in solving crimes with the help of DNA-associated polymorphisms in human beings. The DNA fingerprinting started with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP), which was tedious and time consuming but opened the doors for new developments in the arena. Later, with the development of CODIS, STR markers and now NGS have sped up the process of DNA profiling with better discriminating power and enhanced accuracy. The markers being used are short tandem repeats (STRs), species-specific primers, SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), NGS (next-generation sequencing), Y-STR, X-STR, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The identification of human from the DNA profile, generated through the Genetic Analyzer (by electrophoresis of amplified DNA), is the most favored method which is often used in sexual assault cases, paternity disputes, burning, and murder cases as it is believed that DNA is unique to each individual. In recent years, completely automated DNA-profiling system and diverse genetic markers have been introduced. The rapid DNA instruments integrate different steps such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, separation, detection, sizing, and genotyping of the products on one single platform. This chapter is an insight on the development of DNA fingerprinting over the years and its application in forensic sciences.


DNA fingerprinting DNA marker NGS Forensic investigation 



The authors are thankful to The Director, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Ranchi, Jharkhand, for the support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nisha Bara
    • 1
  • Ramkishan Kumawat
    • 2
  • Jahangir Imam
    • 1
  1. 1.DNA Fingerprinting Unit, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Department of Home, Jail and Disaster ManagementGovernment of JharkhandRanchiIndia
  2. 2.State Forensic Science LaboratoryJaipurIndia

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