Statistical Characterization of an Underwater Channel in a Tropical Shallow Freshwater Lake System

  • Jyoti A. SadalageEmail author
  • Arnab Das
  • Yashwant Joshi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 810)


Underwater acoustics has made significant strides over the last century, which finds applications over a wide range from basic bathymetry study to high-end research extensions. The acoustic propagation in underwater is typically governed by physical properties of the underwater channel, such as temperature, pressure, and salinity. The seasonal fluctuations in the physical properties of the tropical region manifest as thermal stratification. The random thermal stratification has a significant impact on the Sound Speed Profile (SSP), thereby distorting the received echoes from the surface and the bottom. The site-specific behavior in the tropical region makes it an interesting research problem to investigate the correlation of the surface parameters like temperature with the surface and bottom reflection due to variations in the SSP. In this work, we attempt to present underwater channel characteristics of the tropical freshwater lake system at Khadakwasla (18.43° N, 73.76° E), located in the municipal limits of Pune city in India. The temperature gradient along the water column is computed using the one-dimensional Freshwater Lake Model (FLake) to derive the SSP using Medwin relation. The statistical analysis of the sound speed fluctuations resulted due to seasonal variation in the water temperature is presented using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) Goodness-of-Fit test is used to find a close Probability Density Function (pdf) match for the surface and the bottom path impulse response. The results indicate a good match of the surface and bottom path impulse response with Weibull distribution with a high confidence level. Such characterization can facilitate the design of adaptive algorithms to minimize the underwater channel impact based on a precise estimate of the channel impulse response.


Tropical shallow freshwater Underwater channel impulse response Statistical characteristics 


  1. 1.
    United Nations. Water for life 2005–2015. Accessed 12 Sept 2017
  2. 2.
    Gierlowski, E.H., Kelts, K.: Lake basins through space and time. AAPG Studies in Geology. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, vol. 46, p. 648, Tulsa, OK (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bertram, B., Marti, S.: Stratification of lakes. Rev. Geophys. 46, RG2005 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    William, L.: Basics for protection and management of tropical lakes. Lakes Reserv. Res. Manag. 5, 35–48 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Etter, P.C.: Underwater Acoustic Modeling and Simulation, 3rd edn. Spon PressGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Defence Academy. Accessed 23 May 2017
  7. 7.
    Walck, C.: Handbook on statistical distributions for experimentalists. Particle Physics Group, Fysikum, University of StockholmGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Kirillin, G., Hochschild, J., Mironov, D., Terzhevik, A., Golosov, S., Nützmann, G.: FLake-global: online lake model with worldwide coverage. Environ. Model Softw. 26(5), 683–684 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thiery, W., Martynov, A., Darchambeau, F., Descy, J., Plisnier, P., Sushama, L., Lipzig, V.: Understanding performance of Flake model over two African great lakes. Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 317–337 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Georgiy, K., Lijuan, W., Tom, S.: Seasonal thermal regime and climatic trends in lakes of Tibetan highlands. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Medwin, H.: Speed of sound in water: a simple equation for realistic parameters. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58(6), 1318–1319 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qarabaqi, P., Stojanovic, M.: Statistical characterization and computationally efficient modeling of a class of underwater acoustic communication channels. IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 38(4) (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilson, W.D.: Equation for the speed of sound in sea water. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32(10), 1357 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen, C.-T., Millero, F.J.: Speed of sound in seawater at high pressures. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62(5), 1129–1135 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coppens, A.B.: Simple equations for the speed of sound in Neptunian waters. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69(3), 862–863 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leroy, C., Stephen, P., Goldsmith, M.: A new equation for the accurate calculation of sound speed in all oceans. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124(5), 2774–2782 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Twomey, L., Piehler, M., Paerl, H.: Priority parameters for monitoring of fresh water and marine system and their measurement. Environmental monitoring. Encyclopedia of Life Support SystemsGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stojanovic, M., Preisig, J.: Underwater acoustic communication channels: propagation models and statistical characterization. IEEE Commun. Mag. (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chitre, M.: A high-frequency warm shallow water acoustic communications channel model and measurements. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122(5), 2580–2586 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Radosevic, A., Proakis, J., Stojanovic, M.: Statistical characterization and capacity of shallow water acoustic channels. In: IEEE Oceans Europe Conference (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hovannes, K., Melodia, T.: Modeling underwater acoustic channels in short-range shallow water environments. In: Proceedings of WUWNet’14, Rome, Italy, 12–14 Nov 2014Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, W., Yang, T.C.: High-frequency channel characterization for m-ary frequency-shift-keying underwater acoustic communications. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120(5), 2615–2626 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jian, Z., Jesse, C., Yahong, Z.: Statistical channel modeling of wireless shallow water acoustic communications from experiment data. In: Military Communications Conference (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shri Guru Gobind Singhji Institute of Engineering and TechnologyNandedIndia
  2. 2.Maritime Research CenterPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations