Treatment and Recycling of Wastewater from Tannery

  • Tuhina Verma
  • Soni Tiwari
  • Manikant Tripathi
  • Pramod W. Ramteke
Part of the Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future book series (AESE)


Tanneries are one of the most important industries of the world, but discharge toxic hexavalent chromium through their waste water into the environment beyond the permissible limit. Such waste water may cause significant damage to the agricultural lands and receiving water bodies due to its higher toxicity and high COD and BOD values and thus is a matter of global concern. To reduce the impact of discharged waste water on all living beings and the environment, several conventional physico-chemical treatment methods are developed to remediate metal polluted sites. However, these methods are costly due to use of non-regenerable materials, high operating cost and generate toxic sludge. Microbial bioremediation is a relatively cheaper and eco-friendly technique for the removal of heavy metals and chloroorganics from tannery waste water and thus has wider implications. Also, there is a chance to recover the economically valuable metal for reuse. Among various microbes, bacteria have proven to be very effective in removing Cr (VI) and pentachlorophenol from tannery waste water. The treated waste water can also be used for various non-potable purposes including agriculture and also during leather tanning. It will ultimately minimize water scarcity problem and will increase the productivity.


Tannery effluent Waste water treatment Chromium Pentachlorophenol Bioremediation Recycling 


  1. Abdallh MN, Abdelhalim WS, Abdelhalim HS (2016) Biological treatment of leather tanneries wastewater effluent-bench scale modeling. Int J Eng Sci Comp 6:2271–2286Google Scholar
  2. Ackerley DF, Gonzalez CF, Park CH et al (2004) Chromate reducing properties of soluble flavoproteins from Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:873–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilera S, Aguilar ME, Chavez MP et al (2004) Essential residues in the chromate transporter ChrA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett 232:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahamed MIN, Kashif PM (2014) Safety disposal of tannery effluent sludge: challenges to researchers-a review. Int J Pharma Sci Res 5:733–736Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed FN, Lan CQ (2012) Treatment of landfill leachate using membrane bioreactors: a review. Desalination 287:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akan JC (2007) Assessment of industrial tannery effluent from Kano Metropolis, Kano Nigeria. J Appl Sci 7(19):2788–2793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anglada A, Urtiaga A, Ortiz I (2009) Contributions of electrochemical oxidation to waste-water treatment: fundamentals and review of applications. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84(12):1747–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aravindhan R, Madhan B, Rao R et al (2004) Bioaccumulation of chromium from tannery waste water an approach for chrome recovery and reuse. Environ Sci Technol 38:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armienta MA, Morton O, Rodriguez R et al (2001) Chromium in a tannery waste water irrigated area, Leon Valley, Mexico. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 66:189–195Google Scholar
  10. Badawy MI, Ali MEM (2006) Fenton’s per oxidation and coagulation processes for the treatment of combined industrial and domestic waste water. J Hazard Mater 136:961–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bevenue A, Beckman H (1967) Pentachlorophenol: a discussion of its properties and its occurrence as a residue in human and animal tissues. Residue Rev 19:83–134Google Scholar
  12. Birjandi N, Younesi H, Bahramifar N (2016) Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper- recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology. Appl Water Sci 6:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bopp LH, Ehrlich HL (1988) Chromate resistance and reduction in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain LB300. Arch Microbiol 150:426–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosinc M, Buljan J, Daniels RP (2000) Regional program for pollution control, tanning industry US/RAS/92/120, South-East Asia, 1–14Google Scholar
  15. Calheiros CSC, Quitério PVB, Silva G, Crispim LFC, Brix H, Moura SC, Castro PML (2012) Use of constructed wetland systems with Arundo and Sarcocornia for polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. J Environ Manag 95(1):66–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung KH, Gu JD (2007) Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: a review. Int J Biodeterior Biodegrad 59:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chhikara S, Hooda A, Rana L et al (2010) Cr6+ biosorption by immobilized Aspergillus niger in continuous flow system with special reference to FTIR analysis. J Environ Biol 31(5):561–566Google Scholar
  18. Chung YJ, Choi HN, Lee SE et al (2004) Treatment of tannery waste water with high nitrogen content using anoxic/oxic membrane bio-reactor (MBR). J Environ Sci Health All 39:1881–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Congevaram S, Dhanarani S, Park J, Dexilin M et al (2007) Biosorption of chromium and nickel by heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isolates. J Hazard Mater 146:270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooman K, Gajardo M, Nieto J, Bornhardt C, Vidal G (2003) Tannery wastewater characterization and toxicity effects onDaphnia spp. Environ Toxicol 18(1):45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Costa M, Klein CB (2006) Toxicity and carcinogenicity of chromium compounds in humans. Crit Rev Toxicol 36:777–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Costa CR, Olivi P (2009) Effect of chloride concentration on the electrochemical treatment of a synthetic tannery wastewater. Electrochim Acta 54(7):2046–2052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CPCB (2008) Tanneries: effluent standards. Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Dargo H, Ayalew A (2014) Tannery waste water treatment: a review. Int J Emerg Tren Sci Technol 01:1488–1494Google Scholar
  25. Das N, Vimala R, Kartika P (2008) Biosorption of heavy metals-an overview. Indian J Biotechnol 7:159–169Google Scholar
  26. Devi BD, Thatheyus AJ, Ramya D (2012) Bioremeoval of hexavalent chromium, using Pseudomonas fluorescens. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 2:727–735Google Scholar
  27. Dias MA, Lacerda ICA, Pimentel PF et al (2002) Removal of heavy metals by an Aspergillus terreus strain immobilized in a polyurethane matrix. Lett Appl Microbiol 34(1):46–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Durai G, Rajasimman M (2011) Biological treatment of tannery waste water, a review. J Environ Sci Technol 4(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Saini D (2012) Removal of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from waste water. Int J Sci Res 1(3):181–185Google Scholar
  30. Eckenfelder WW (2002) Industrial water pollution control. McGraw-Hill, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  31. Emamjomeh MM, Sivakumar M (2009) Review of pollutants removed by electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/flotation processes. J Environ Manag 90(5):1663–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Environmental Protection Agency (1999) Integrated risk information system (IRSI) on pentachlorophenol. National Centre for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) List of drinking water contaminants and MCL’s. EPA 816-6-02-013
  34. Espinoza-Quinones FR, Fornari MMT, Módenes AN et al (2009) Pollutant removal from tannery effluent by electrocoagulation. Chem Eng J 151:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Faisal M, Hasnain S (2004) Microbial conversion of Cr (VI) in to Cr (III) in industrial Effluent. Afr J Biotechnol 3:610–617Google Scholar
  36. Farabegoli G, Carucci A, Majone M et al (2004) Biological treatment of tannery waste water in the presence of chromium. J Environ Manag 71:345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Filali BK, Taoufik J, Zeronal Y et al (2000) Waste water bacterial isolates resistant to heavy metals and antibiotics. Curr Microbiol 41:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fukuda T, Tsutsumi K, Ishino Y et al (2008) Removal of hexavalent chromium in vitro and from contaminated soils by chromate-resistant fungi from chromium deposits. J Environ Biotechnol 8:111–118Google Scholar
  39. Gao S, Yang J, Tian J et al (2010) Electrocoagulation-flotation process for algae removal. J Hazard Mater 177:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garcia MA, Alonso J, Melgar MJ (2005) Agaricus macrosporus as a potential bioremediation agent for substrates contaminated with heavy metals. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80:325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gautam RK, Mudhoo A, Lofrano G (2014) Biomass-derived biosorbents for metal ions sequestration: adsorbent modification and activation methods and adsorbent regeneration. J Environ Chem Eng 2(1):239–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Geethakarthi A (2017) Environmentally sound disposal of tannery sludge. Int J Civil Eng Technol 8:368–381Google Scholar
  43. Goswami S, Mazumder D (2014) Scope of biological treatment for composite tannery waste water. Int J Environ Sci 5:607–622Google Scholar
  44. Gupta VK, Carrott PJM, Ribeiro Carrott MML et al (2009) Low-cost adsorbents: growing approach to waste water treatment-a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39:783–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA et al (2012) Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling—an overview. R Soc Chem Adv 2:6380–6388Google Scholar
  46. Haydar S, Aziz JA (2009) Coagulation–flocculation studies of tannery waste water using cationic polymers as a replacement of metal salts. Water Sci Technol 59:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holt PK, Barton GW, Mitchell CA (2005) The future for electrocoagulation as a localised water treatment technology. Chemosphere 59:355–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Infogate (2002) Treatment of tannery waste water.
  49. Jawahar AJ, Chinnadurai M, Ponselvan JKS et al (1998) Pollution from tanneries and options for treatment of effluent. Indust J Environ Protect 18:672–672Google Scholar
  50. Jeyasingh J, Philip L (2005) Bioremediation of chromium contaminated soil: optimization of operating parameters under laboratory conditions. J Hazard Mater 118:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kashefi K, Lovley DR (2000) Reduction of Fe (III), Mn (IV) and toxic metals at 100EC by Pyrobaculum islandicum. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1050–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kassab G, Halalsheh M, Klapwijk A et al (2010) Sequential anaerobic aerobic treatment for domestic waste water – a review. Bioresour Technol 101:3299–3310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Katsifas EA, Giannoutsou E, Lambraki M et al (2004) Chromium recycling of tannery waste through microbial fermentation. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 31:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khalfaouy RE, Elabed A, Khallouk K et al (2017) Microfiltration process for tannery waste water treatment from a leather industry in Fez-Morocco area. J Mat Environ Sci 8:2276–2281Google Scholar
  55. Kılıc MG, Hosten C, Demirci S (2009) A parametric comparative study of electrocoagulation and coagulation using ultrafine quartz suspensions. J Hazard Mater 171:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kongjao S, Damronglerd S, Hunsom M (2008) Simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in tannery waste water using electro coagulation technique. Kor J Chem Eng 25:703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krishanamoorthi S, Sivakumar V, Saravanan K et al (2009) Treatment and reuse of tannery waste water by embedded system. Modern Appl Sci 3:129–134Google Scholar
  58. Kumar PR, Chaudhari S, Khilar KC et al (2004) Removal of arsenic from water by electrocoa-gulation. Chemosphere 55:1245–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leena AV, Balasundaram N, Meiaraj C (2016) Assessment of dairy waste treatment based on sludge volume index technique. Int J Civil Eng Technol 7:368–381Google Scholar
  60. Leitinga G, Hulshoff Pol LW (1991) UASB-process design for various types of waste waters. Water Sci Technol 24:87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lin SH, Chuang TS (1994) Wet air oxidation and activated sludge; treatment of phenolic waste water. J Environ Sci Health A 29:547–564Google Scholar
  62. Malakootian M, Mansoorian HJ, Moosazadeh M (2010) Performance evaluation of electrocoagulation process using iron-rod electrodes for removing hardness from drinking water. Desalination 255:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Masood F, Malik A (2011) Hexavalent chromium reduction by Bacillus sp. strain FM1 isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86:114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maurya A, Verma T (2014) Concomitant bioremediation of chromium (VI) and pentachlorophenol from the tannery effluent by immobilized Brevibacterium casei. IOSR J Eng 4:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Min KS, Yu JJ, Kim YJ et al (2004) Removal of ammonium from tannery waste water by electrochemical treatment. J Environ Sci Health 39:1867–1879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mook WT, Chakrabarti MH, Aroua MK et al (2012) Removal of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC) from aquaculture waste water using electrochemical technology: a review. Desalination 285:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Morales-Barrera L, Guillen-Jimenez FM, Ortiz-Moreno A et al (2008) Isolation, identification and characterization of a Hypocrea tawa strain with high Cr (VI) reduction potential. J Biochem Eng 40:284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mosa KA, Saadoun I, Kumar K et al (2016) Potential biotechnological strategies for the cleanup of heavy metals and metalloids. Front Plant Sci 7:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Munz G, Gori R, Mori G et al (2007) Powdered activated carbon and membrane bioreactors (MBRPAC) for tannery waste water treatment: long term effect on biological and filtration process performances. Desalination 207:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Murugesan V, Elangoan R (1994) Biokinetic parameters for activated sludge process treating vegetable tannery waste. Indust J Environ Protect 14:511–515Google Scholar
  71. Orser CS, Lange CC (1994) Molecular analysis of pentachlorophenol degradation. Biodegradation 5:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Owlad M, Aroua MK, Daud WAW et al (2009) Removal of hexavalent chromium-contaminated water and waste water: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 200:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Panda J, Sarkar P (2012) Bioremediation of chromium by novel strains Enterobacter aerogens T2 and Acinetobacter sp. PD 12 S2. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1809–1817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Park CH, Gonzalez D, Ackerley D et al (2002) Molecular engineering of soluble bacterial proteins with chromate reductase activity. In: Hinchee RE, Porta A, Pellei M (eds) Remediation and beneficial reuse of contaminated sediments. Batelle Press, Columbus., ISBN-13: 9781574771299, pp 103–112Google Scholar
  75. Pedro JJA, Walter AI (2006) Bioremediation and natural attenuation: process fundamentals and mathematical models. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  76. Pedro JJA, Walter AI (2006) Bioremediation and natural attenuation: process fundamentals and mathematical models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USAGoogle Scholar
  77. Peng Y, Hou H, Wang S et al (2008) Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system. J Environ Sci 20:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Polti MA, Amoroso MJ, Abate CM (2010) Chromate reductase activity in Streptomyces sp. MC1. J Gen Appl Microbiol 56:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Prasad MNV, Freitas HMD (2003) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants—biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electron J Biotechnol 93(1):285–321Google Scholar
  80. Protrade (1995) Treatment of Tannery wastewater. In: Ecology and environment in the leather industry-technical handbook. Hesse, EschbornGoogle Scholar
  81. Pun R, Raut P, Pant BR (2013) Removal of chromium (VI) from leachate using bacterial biomass. Sci World 11:63–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ramteke PW, Awasthi S, Srinath T (2010) Efficiency assessment of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) treating tannery effluent. Environ Monit Assess 169:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rodrigo MA, Cañizares P, Buitrón C (2010) Electrochemical technologies for the regeneration of urban waste waters. Electrochim Acta 55:8160–8164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sabumon PC (2016) Perspectives on biological treatment of tannery effluent. Adv Recycl Waste Manag 1:1Google Scholar
  85. Sadeddin K, Naser A, Firas A (2011) Removal of turbidity and suspended solids by electro-coagulation to improve feed water quality of reverse osmosis plant. Desalination 268:204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Secula MS, Creţescu I, Petrescu S (2011) An experimental study of indigo carmine removal from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation. Desalination 277:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sekaran G, Chitra K, Mariappan M et al (1996) Removal of sulfide in anaerobically treated tannery waste water by wet air oxidation. J Environ Stud Health A 31:579–598Google Scholar
  88. Shah S, Thakur IS (2003) Enzymatic dehalogenation of pentachlorophenol by Pseudomonas fluorescens of the microbial community from tannery effluent. Curr Microbiol 47:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharma A, Thakur IS, Dureja P (2009) Enrichment, isolation and characterization of pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium Acinetobacter sp. ISTPCP-3 from effluent discharge site. Biodegradation 20:643–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Singh N, Verma T, Gaur R (2013) Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by an indigenous facultative anaerobic Bacillus cereus strain isolated from tannery effluent. Afr J Biotechnol 12:1091–1103Google Scholar
  91. Smith WL, Gadd GM (2000) Reduction and precipitation of chromate by mixed culture sulphate-reducing bacterial biofilms. J Appl Microbiol 88:983–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Srinath T, Verma T, Ramteke PW et al (2002) Chromium (VI) biosorption and bioaccumulation by chromate resistant bacteria. Chemosphere 48:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Srivastava S, Thakur IS (2007) Evaluation of biosorption potency of Acinetobacter sp. for removal of hexavalent chromium from tannery effluent. Biodegradation 18:637–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Srivastava S, Ahmad AH, Thakur IS (2007) Removal of chromium and pentachlorophenol from tannery effluent. Bioresour Technol 98:1128–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stanlake GJ, Finn RK (1982) Isolation and characterization of a pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1421–1427Google Scholar
  96. Sundarapandiyan S, Chandrasekar R, Ramanaiah B et al (2010) Electrochemical oxidation and reuse of tannery saline waste water. J Hazard Mater 180:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tare V, Gupta S, Bose P (2003) Case studies on biological treatment of tannery effluents in India. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 53:976–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tekerlekopoulou AG, Tsiamis G, Dermou E et al (2010) The effect of carbon source on microbial community structure and Cr (VI) reduction rate. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:478–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thakur IS, Verma PK, Upadhaya KC (2001) Involvement of plasmid in degradation of Pentachlorophenol by Pseudomonas sp. from a Chemostat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 286:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ukiwe LN, Ibeneme SI, Duru CE et al (2014) Chemical and electrocoagulation techniques in coagulation-flocculation in water and waste water treatment- a review. IJRRAS 18(3):285–294Google Scholar
  101. UNIDO (2011) Introduction to treatment of tannery effluents: what every tanner should know about effluent treatment, 2011. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  102. Upreti RK, Shrivastava R, Chaturvedi UC (2004) Gut microflora and toxic metals: chromium as a model. Indian J Med Res 119:49–59Google Scholar
  103. Valeika V, Beleska K, Valeikiene V (2006) Oxidation of sulphides in tannery waste water by use of Manganese (IV) oxide. J Environ Stud 15:623–629Google Scholar
  104. Vankar PS, Bajpai D (2007) Phyto-remediation of chrome-VI of tannery effluent by Trichoderma species, Conference on Desalination and the Environment. Sponsored by the European Desalination Society and Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Sani Resort, Halkidiki, Greece, April 22–25Google Scholar
  105. Verma T, Baiswar V (2013) Isolation and characterization of extracellular thermoalkaline protease producing Bacillus cereus isolated from treated tannery effluent. Int J Eng Sci 2:23–29Google Scholar
  106. Verma T, Maurya A (2013) Isolation of potential bacteria from tannery effluent capable to simultaneously tolerate hexavalent chromium and pentachlorophenol and its possible use in effluent bioremediation. Int J Eng Sci 2:64–69Google Scholar
  107. Verma T, Singh N (2013) Isolation and process parameter optimization of Brevibacterium casei for simultaneous bioremediation of hexavalent chromium and pentachlorophenol. J Basic Microbiol 53:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verma T, Srinath T, Gadpayle R et al (2001) Chromate tolerant bacteria isolated from tannery effluents. Bioresour Technol 78:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK (2002) Effect of ecological factors on conjugal transfer of chromium resistant plasmid in Escherichia coli isolated from tannery effluent. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 102–103:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK (2004) Occurrence of chromium resistant thermotolerant coliforms in tannery effluent. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 42:1112–1116Google Scholar
  111. Verma T, Ramteke PW, Garg SK (2008) Bacteriological and physico-chemical quality assessment of treated tannery waste water with special emphasis on pathogenic E. coli detection through serotyping. Environ Monit Assess 145:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Verma T, Garg SK, Ramteke PW (2009) Genetic correlation between chromium resistance and reduction in Bacillus brevis isolated from tannery effluent. J Appl Microbiol 107:1425–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Verma T, Maurya A, Tiwari S (2016) Purification and characterization of hexavalent chromate reductase activity in cell free extract of Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from treated tannery effluent. Curr Biochem Eng 3(2):104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wu WE, Ge HG, Zhang KF (2003) Waste water biological treatment technology. Chemical Industry Press (CIP) Publishing, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  115. Zodi S, Potier O, Lapicque F (2009) Treatment of the textile waste waters by electrocoagulation: effect of operating parameters on the sludge settling characteristics. Sep Purif Technol 69:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuhina Verma
    • 1
  • Soni Tiwari
    • 1
  • Manikant Tripathi
    • 1
  • Pramod W. Ramteke
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology (Centre of Excellence)Dr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh UniversityFaizabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesSam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Science and TechnologyNaini, AllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations