Advertisement

Gastroesophageal Reflux Diseases and Lifestyle Factors

  • Yasuhiro FujiwaraEmail author
  • Risa Uemura
Chapter

Abstract

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common upper gastrointestinal disorder and has been increasing in the past two decades in Japan. Several studies showed significant associations between GERD and lifestyle factors. In this chapter, we focused on obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and late meals. We also discussed how these factors affect pathogenesis of GERD. We recommend modification of lifestyle factors associated with GERD as a basic therapeutic strategy.

Keywords

GERD Obesity Metabolic syndrome Smoking Alcohol 

References

  1. 1.
    Fujiwara Y. Recent epidemiology of GERD in the Japanese population. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2017;114:1781–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fujiwara Y, Arakawa T. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of GERD in the Japanese population. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:518–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iwakiri K, Kinoshita Y, Habu Y, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for gastroesophageal reflux disease 2015. J Gastroenterol. 2016;51:751–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaltenbach T, Crockett S, Gerson LB. Are lifestyle measures effective in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease? An evidence-based approach. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:965–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kinoshita Y, Ashida K, Miwa H, et al. The impact of lifestyle modification on the health-related quality of life of patients with reflux esophagitis receiving treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1106–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Serag H. Role of obesity in GORD-related disorders. Gut. 2008;57:281–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    El-Serag HB, Ergun GA, Pandolfino J, et al. Obesity increases oesophageal acid exposure. Gut. 2007;56:749–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iwakiri K, Sugiura T, Hayashi Y, et al. Esophageal motility in Japanese patients with Barrett’s esophagus. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:1036–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Serag H. The association between obesity and GERD: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:2307–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Corley DA, Kubo A. Body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:2619–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kang MS, Park DI, Oh SY, et al. Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for erosive esophagitis in a Korean population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1656–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kato M, Watabe K, Hamasaki T, et al. Association of low serum adiponectin levels with erosive esophagitis in men: an analysis of 2405 subjects undergoing physical check-ups. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:1361–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corley DA, Kubo A, Zhao W. Abdominal obesity, ethnicity and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Gut. 2007;56:756–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tilg H, Moschen AR. Visceral adipose tissue attacks beyond the liver: esophagogastric junction as a new target. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:1823–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baron JH. Lean body mass, gastric acid, and peptic ulcer. Gut. 1969;10:637–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ness-Jensen E, Hveem K, El-Serag H, et al. Lifestyle intervention in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14:175–82.e1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mathus-Vliegen LM, Tytgat GN. Twenty-four-hour pH measurements in morbid obesity: effects of massive overweight, weight loss and gastric distension. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996;8:635–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mathus-Vliegen EM, Tygat GN. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in obese subjects: influence of overweight, weight loss and chronic gastric balloon distension. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2002;37:1246–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mathus-Vliegen EM, van Weeren M, van Eerten PV. Los function and obesity: the impact of untreated obesity, weight loss, and chronic gastric balloon distension. Digestion. 2003;68:161–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jacobson BC, Somers SC, Fuchs CS, et al. Body-mass index and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in women. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2340–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ness-Jensen E, Lindam A, Lagergren J, et al. Weight loss and reduction in gastroesophageal reflux. A prospective population-based cohort study: the HUNT study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:376–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watanabe S, Hojo M, Nagahara A. Metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal diseases. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:267–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sogabe M, Okahisa T, Kimura T, et al. Influence of metabolic syndrome on upper gastrointestinal disease. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2016;9:191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moki F, Kusano M, Mizuide M, et al. Association between reflux oesophagitis and features of the metabolic syndrome in Japan. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:1069–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niigaki M, Adachi K, Hirakawa K, et al. Association between metabolic syndrome and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a health screening facility in Japan. J Gastroenterol. 2013;48:463–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nishida T, Tsuji S, Tsujii M, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease related to diabetes: analysis of 241 cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;19:258–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kase H, Hattori Y, Sato N, et al. Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in diabetes patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;79:e6–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kinekawa F, Kubo F, Matsuda K, et al. Relationship between esophageal dysfunction and neuropathy in diabetic patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:2026–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kinekawa F, Kubo F, Matsuda K, et al. Esophageal function worsens with long duration of diabetes. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:338–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kinekawa F, Kubo F, Matsuda K, et al. Is the questionnaire for the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux useful for diabetic patients? Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005;40:1017–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chow SL, Luzier AB, DiTusa L, et al. Acid-suppressive therapy use associated with antihypertensive agents. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:750–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Park JH, Park DI, Kim HJ, et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with erosive esophagitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5442–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Matsuzaki J, Suzuki H, Kobayakawa M, et al. Association of visceral fat area, smoking, and alcohol consumption with reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japan. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0133865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Watanabe Y, Fujiwara Y, Shiba M, et al. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japanese men. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:807–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nilsson M, Johnsen R, Ye W, et al. Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut. 2004;53:1730–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ness-Jensen E, Lindam A, Lagergren J, et al. Tobacco smoking cessation and improved gastroesophageal reflux: a prospective population-based cohort study: the HUNT study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:171–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hallan A, Bomme M, Hveem K, et al. Risk factors on the development of new-onset gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A population-based prospective cohort study: the HUNT study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015;110:393–400; quiz 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kohata Y, Fujiwara Y, Watanabe T, et al. Long-term benefits of smoking cessation on gastroesophageal reflux disease and health-related quality of life. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0147860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kahrilas PJ, Gupta RR. Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking. Gut. 1990;31:4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schindlbeck NE, Heinrich C, Dendorfer A, et al. Influence of smoking and esophageal intubation on esophageal pH-metry. Gastroenterology. 1987;92:1994–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Waring JP, Eastwood TF, Austin JM, et al. The immediate effects of cessation of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989;84:1076–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kadakia SC, Kikendall JW, Maydonovitch C, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux measured by 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90:1785–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gunji T, Sato H, Iijima K, et al. Risk factors for erosive esophagitis: a cross-sectional study of a large number of Japanese males. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46:448–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Akiyama T, Inamori M, Iida H, et al. Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erosive esophagitis and Barrett’s epithelium in Japanese men. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meining A, Classen M. The role of diet and lifestyle measures in the pathogenesis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2692–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fujiwara Y, Machida A, Watanabe Y, et al. Association between dinner-to-bed time and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:2633–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Piesman M, Hwang I, Maydonovitch C, et al. Nocturnal reflux episodes following the administration of a standardized meal. Does timing matter? Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2128–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyOsaka City University Graduate School of MedicineOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations