Computer-Aided Orthopedic Surgery: Incremental Shift or Paradigm Change?

  • Leo JoskowiczEmail author
  • Eric J. Hazan
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1093)


Computer-aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS) is now about 25 years old. Unlike neurosurgery, computer-aided surgery has not become the standard of care in orthopedic surgery. In this paper, we provide the technical and clinical context raised by this observation in an attempt to elucidate the reasons for this state of affairs. We start with a brief outline of the history of CAOS, review the main CAOS technologies, and describe how they are evaluated. We then identify some of the current publications in the field and present the opposing views on their clinical impact and their acceptance by the orthopedic community worldwide. We focus on total knee replacement surgery as a case study and present current clinical results and contrasting opinions on CAOS technologies. We then discuss the challenges and opportunities for research in medical image analysis in CAOS and in musculoskeletal radiology. We conclude with a suggestion that while CAOS acceptance may be more moderate than that of other fields in surgery, it still has a place in the arsenal of useful tools available to orthopedic surgeons.


Computer-aided orthopedic surgery Image-guided surgery Medical robotics 



This chapter was modified from the paper published by our group in Medical Image Analysis (Joskowicz and Hazan 2016; 33:84–90). The related contents are reused with permission.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science and EngineeringThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Traumatology and Emergency DepartmentsInstituto Nacional de RehabilitacionMexico CityMexico

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