Advertisement

Transmission Potential of Wuchereria bancrofti by Culex quinquefasciatus in Malaysia and Its Global Significance

  • Indra Vythilingam
Chapter

Abstract

Filariasis caused by three parasites, namely, Brugia malayi, B. timori and Wuchereria bancrofti, is of immense public health importance in Asia. Although this disease is in the process of elimination, we are now faced with a daunting challenge of increased susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus to foreign strains of W. bancrofti. We now see cases of W. bancrofti in migrant workers coming into the country. International travel and cross-border migration have created a more complex situation that needs serious attention so as to progress unhindered towards elimination. This paper reviews the status of W. bancrofti-caused infection in Malaysia and the way forward.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The author would like to thank the Head of Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya, for his continuous support.

References

  1. Bockarie MJ, Pedersen EM, White GB, Michael E (2009) Role of vector control in the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annu Rev Entomol 54:469–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cartel JL, Nguyen NL, Moulia-Pelat JP, Plichart R, Martin PM, Spiegel A (1992) Mass chemoprophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin in a Polynesian community with a high Wuchereria bancrofti infection rate. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:537–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang M, Jute N, Lah J (1988) Breeding site productivity of the swamp forest mosquitoes Mansonia bonneae and Mansonia dives in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Med Vet Entomol 2:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang MS, Chan KL, Ho BC, Hawley WA (1991) Comparative transmission potential three Mansonia spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) for filariasis in Sarawak, Malaysia. Bull Entomol Res 81:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheong W, Omar A (1965) Anopheles maculatus, a new vector of Wuchereria bancrofti in Malaysia (Pulau Aur) and a potential vector on mainland Malaya. Med J Malaya 20:74–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiang GL (1991) Update on distribution and bionomics of Mansonia vectors. World Health Organization FIL/EC/91/WP.25, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  7. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Samarawickrema WA, Sulaiman I, Yap HH (1984a) Species composition, seasonal abundance and filarial infections of Mansonia in two ecotypes in peninsular Malaysia. Trop Biomed 1:41–47Google Scholar
  8. Chiang GL, Samarawickrema WA, Cheong WH, Sulaiman I, Yap HH (1984b) Biting activity, age composition and survivorship of Mansonia in two ecotypes in peninsular Malaysia. Trop Biomed 1:115–120Google Scholar
  9. Chiang GL, Loong KP, Mahadevan S, Eng KL (1988) A study on the dispersal, survival and gonotrophic cycle estimates of Mansonia uniformis in an open swamp ecotype. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19:271–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Daniels CW (1908) Animal parasites in man and some of the lower animals in Malaya. Studies Inst Med Res F.M.S. 3, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  11. Hakim SL, Vythilingam I, Marzukhi MI, Mak JW (1995) Single-dose diethylcarbamazine in the control of periodic brugian filariasis in peninsular Malaysia. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 89:686–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hawking F (1976) The distribution of human filariasis throughout the world. Part II Asia Trop Dis Bull 73:967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hii J, Kan S, Pereira M, Parmar S, Campos R, Chan M (1985) Bancroftian filariasis and malaria in island and hinterland populations in Sabah, Malaysia. Trop Geog Med 37:93–101Google Scholar
  14. Hodgkin E (1937) Annual report of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  15. Hodgkin E (1938) Annual report of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  16. Leicester GF (1908) Notes on the pathogenicity of certain mosquitoes with respect to Filaria nocturna and malignant tertian malaria. Stud Inst Med Res Federated Malay States 3:267Google Scholar
  17. Low V, Chen C, Lee HL, Lim P, Leong C, Sofian–Azirun M. (2013) Current susceptibility status of Malaysian Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) against DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. J Med Entomol 50:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mak JW, Cheah WC (1973) Annual report. Institute for Medical Research, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  19. Mak JW, Cheah WC (1974) Annual report. Institute for Medical Research, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  20. Manguin S, Bangs M, Pothikasikorn J, Chareonviriyaphap T (2010) Review on global co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes. Infect Genetic Evol 10:159–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marzhuki M, Tham A, Poovaneswari S (1992) Current status of filariasis in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24:10–14Google Scholar
  22. Mccarroll L, Paton M, Karunaratne S, Jayasuryia H, Kalpage K, Hemingway J (2000) Insecticides and mosquito-borne disease: insecticide resistance in mosquitoes can also interfere with developing parasites. Nature (London) 407:961–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mcgreevy P, Kolstrup N, Tao J, Mcgreevy M, Marshall TDC (1982) Ingestion and development of Wuchereria bancrofti in Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti after feeding on humans with varying densities of microfilariae in Tanzania. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 76:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nazni WA, Lee HL, Azahari A (2005) Adult and larval insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. Trop Biomed 22:63–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Noordin R, Shenoy RK, Lim BH, Ramachandran CP (2013) Filarial worms in Southeast Asia. In: Lim AL, Vythilingam I (eds) Parasites and their vectors: a special focus on Southeast Asia. Springer, London, pp 33–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poynton J, Hodgkin E (1938) Endemic filariasis in the federated Malay states. Bull No 1 Inst Med Res 67Google Scholar
  27. Ramachandran C (1971) Annual report. Institute for Medical Research, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  28. Ramachandran C, Hoo C, Bin O (1964) Filariasis among aborigines and Malays living close to Kuala Lumpur. Med J Malaysia 18:193–200Google Scholar
  29. Strahan JH, Norris VH (1934) Notes on the incidence of filariasis in province Wellesley north. Malayan Med J 9:44–47Google Scholar
  30. Sudomo M, Chayabejara S, Duong S, Hernandez L, Wu WP, Bergquist R (2010) Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Southeast Asia. Adv Parasitol 72:205–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thomas V, Ramachandran C (1970) Selection of Culex pipiens fatigans for vector ability to the rural strain of Wuchereria bancrofti-a preliminary report. Med J Malaya 24:196–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vythilingam I (2012) Plasmodium knowlesi and Wuchereria bancrofti: their vectors and challenges for the future. Front Syst Biol 3:115Google Scholar
  33. Vythilingam I, Hakim SL, Chan ST, Mak JW (1996) Anopheles donaldi incriminated as a vector of periodic Brugia malayi in Grik, Perak, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 27:637–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vythilingam I, Huat TC, Ahmad NW (2005) Research note transmission potential of Wuchereria bancrofti by Culex quinquefasciatus in urban areas of Malaysia. Trop Biomed 22:83–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. World Health Organisation (2010) Regional strategic plan for elimination of lymphatic filariasis 2010–2015. WHO Regional Office Southeast Asia, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  36. World Health Organisation (2013) Lymphatic filariasis, fact sheet No 102Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Indra Vythilingam
    • 1
  1. 1.Parasitology Department, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations