Sporadic Incidence of Lymphatic Filariasis in Nonendemic State of Rajasthan and Control of the Vector (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823), with Innovative Botanicals and a Possible Hypothesis on the Spread of ‘Disease Endemism’

  • Arti Prasad
  • Girima Nagda


Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in most of the states and union territories in the peninsular India, and Rajasthan in Western India, in spite of sporadic incidences, is still considered a nonendemic state. Ironically, microfilaraemics have been encountered now and then in recent times. The presence of sporadic incidences comprising both imported and indigenous cases has warranted a proper monitoring of emergence of positives especially in view of migration of labour forces from endemic neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat, migration of cattle raisers in search of fodder, preponderance of the vector and likelihood of armed personnel and their associates who frequently move on duty or transfer amongst endemic and nonendemic states. The present chapter details out some of the startling sporadic incidences reported from Rajasthan and proposes for the first time a possible hypothesis for the spread of disease endemism. A succinct account of herbal products in various forms like repellents and larvicides, effective against vectors, such as Cx quinquefasciatus, is presented to tackle the problem of vector control.


  1. Ali GH, El-Taweel GE, Ali MA (2004) The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds extracts. Int J Environ Stud 61:699–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dam PK, Ramanath T, Yadav SP et al (2000a) Use of ethnomedicinal practices in the Thar Desert, northwestern India. J Econ Taxon Bot 24:303–318Google Scholar
  3. Dam PK, Yadav SP, Tyagi BK (2000b) Thar Marukschetrameinaushadhi-uktavanaspatiyan: ekpurvalokana (in Hindi) [The medicinal plants of Thar Desert region: a review]. ICMR Patrika 14(8):61–65Google Scholar
  4. Dreyer G, Ottesen EA, Galdino E et al (1992) Renal abnormalities in microfilaremic patients with bancroftianfilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46:745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duggal S, Khatri PK, Parihar RS, Chandora A, Dhoundyal R, Deval M, Choudhary T (2015) Unusual presentation of Filariasis in a tertiary care hospital in Western Rajasthan: a case report. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4(1):685–689Google Scholar
  6. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T, Samodurai K (2008a) Studies on effect of Acalyphaindica L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 103:691–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Govindarajan M, Jebanesan A, Pushpanathan T (2008b) Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 102:289–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jindal A, Sukheeja D, Midya M (2014) Cervical lymphadenopathy in a child-An unusual presentation of filariasis. Int J Sci Res Publ 4(8):2250–3153Google Scholar
  9. NJOM, Victor Stephen and EZE, Chukwuma Simon (2011) Toxicity and life expectancy effects of Moringaoleifera seed extracts on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Ani Res Int 8(2):1388–1391Google Scholar
  10. NVBDCP (2010) National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Website: Available from [cited on 2010 Jan 13]
  11. Omena MC, de Navarro DMAF, de Paula JE, Luna JS, Ferreira de Lima MR, Sant’Ana AEG (2007) Larvicidal activities against Aedesaegypti of some Brazilian medicinal plants. Biores Technol 98:2549–2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ottesen EA (1984) Immunological aspects of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Parihar RS, Duggal S, Khatri PK, Rathore SS, Meena S, Dhoundyal R (2015) Atypical presentation of cervical lymphadenopathy in a case of lymphatic filariasis. Int J Sci Res Publ 5(6):1–4Google Scholar
  14. Paulo MPF, Ana FUC, Davi FF, Nara GC et al (2009) Larvicidal activity of the water extract of Moringa oleifera seeds against Aedesaegypti and its toxicity upon laboratory animals. Ann Acad Bras Cienc 81(2):207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pichersky E, Gershenzon J (2002) The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Prasad A, Sharma E (2014) Phytotoxicological assessment of Moringaoleifera Lam. against larvae of important human malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta:Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Innov Appl Stud 7(4):1633–1641Google Scholar
  17. Rajagopalan PK, Kazmi SJ, Mani TR (1977) Some aspects of transmission of Wuchereriabancrofti and ecology of the vector Culexpipiensfatigans in Pondicherry. Indian J Med Res 66:200–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sabesan S, Vanamail P, Raju K, Jambulingam P (2010) Lymphatic filariasis in India: epidemiology and control measures. J Postgrad Med 56:232–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shahi AK, Tyagi BK, Chaudhary RC, Kaul BK (2000) Cymbopogonschoenanthus (L) Spreng. (Poaceae)-a versatile aromatic and medicinal plant of Indian Thar Desert. Flavours Fragr Assoc India J 1:3–33Google Scholar
  20. Sharma VP, Ansari MA, Razdan RK (1993) Mosquito repellent action of neem (Azadirachtaindica) oil. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9(3):359–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Sharma SP, Das M, Rao CK (1977) Current estimates of filariasis problem in India. J Commun Dis 9:111–116Google Scholar
  22. Singh DP, Mahur H, Jhirwal KS, Ameta M, Mudghal DS (2014) Filariasisin Southern Rajasthan. A case report. Int J Curr Res 6(12):11055–11056Google Scholar
  23. Subramanian S, Pani SP, Das PK, Rajagopalan PK (1989) Bancroftianfilariasis in Pondicherry, South India: 2, epidemiological evaluation of the effect of vector control. Epidemiol Infect 103:693–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sugumar S, Clarke SK, Niramala MJ et al (2014) Nanoemulsion of eucalyptus oil and its larvicidalacitivities against Culexquinquefasciatus. Bull Entomol Res 104(3):393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tyagi BK (2002a) Future of phytochemicals against vector mosquitoes. In: Paper on Abstract VI AZRA Congress on Advance in applied zoological researches for food PRODUCTION and environmental safety, Cuttack, 19–21 December 2002Google Scholar
  26. Tyagi BK (2002b) Future of phytochemicals against vector mosquitoes. J Appl Zool Res 14:101–106Google Scholar
  27. Tyagi BK (2003a) A review of plant based materials active against vector mosquitoes with particular emphasis on repellent potential of Cymbopogon (Poaceae). J Econ Taxon Bot 28:489–493Google Scholar
  28. Tyagi BK (2003b) Cymbopogon essential oils: their chemistry and mosquito repellent activities. Paper abstract national SYMPOSIUM on biochemical science health & environmental aspects, Agra, pp 140–142Google Scholar
  29. Tyagi BK, Shahi AK (2001) Evaluation of repellent potential of two Cymbopogon species (Poaceae), endemic to the Thar Desert (India), against major vector mosquitoes. International conference globalization of Indian essential oils, Agra, 21–23 September 2001Google Scholar
  30. Tyagi BK, Shahi AK (2002) Genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae) – a potent group of mosquito repellent bearing characteristics. Paper Abstract XVI National Congress on Parasitology, Bareilly, 31 Oct, 2 Nov 2002, p 91Google Scholar
  31. Tyagi BK, Shahi AK, Kaul BL (1998) Evaluation of repellent activities of Cymbopogon essential oils against mosquito vectors of Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue Fever in India. Phytomedicine 5(4):324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. WHO (1984) Filariasis. Report of the Fourth Expert Committee. Technical Report series No. 702Google Scholar
  33. WHO (World Health Organization) (1995) Bridging the gaps. World Health Report. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  34. WHO (2005) Sixth meeting of the Technical Advisory Group on the Global Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, Geneva, Switzerland. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80:401–408Google Scholar
  35. Witt C, Ottesen EA (2001) Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Trop Med Intl Health 6(8):582–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arti Prasad
    • 1
  • Girima Nagda
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Medical Arthropodology, Department of ZoologyMohan Lal Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations