Advertisement

Epidemiology of Lymphatic Filariasis

  • P. L. Joshi
Chapter

Abstract

Human lymphatic filariasis (LF), commonly known as elephantiasis due to appearance of elephantoid lower limbs, is caused by nematode parasites (roundworms) of the order Filariidae comprising thread-like structure. Lymphatic filariasis is transmitted from man to man by the bites of mosquitoes, particularly the brown-black common house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823. Categorized as an NTD (neglected tropical disease), it nevertheless is a major public health problem in many parts of the tropics where it imposes a severe physical, psychological and socioeconomic burden in approximately 1.4 billion people living in endemic regions. About 120 million are currently infected with LF, while nearly 76 million people suffer from damaged lymphatic and renal systems, besides 44 million people suffering symptomatically with lymphoedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. More than 50 countries are running programmes with the objective to reduce parasite transmission and decrease the risk of infection for people living in or visiting these communities in endemic countries. India is a signatory to the World Health Assembly resolution to achieve the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by 2020 through a nationwide mass drug administration (MDA) commencing in 250 endemic districts, covering 600 million people and deploying initially diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) alone in 2004 and subsequently co-administering DEC with albendazole (Alb) in 2007. So far ten rounds of MDA have been implemented in the endemic states, though not without many pitfalls. The success achieved thus far is outstanding and has kindled a hope to eliminate the disease in the next few years.

References

  1. Babu BV, Swain BK, Rath K (2006) Impact of chronic lymphatic filariasis on quantity and quality of productive work among weavers in an endemic village from India. Tropical Med Int Health 11:712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carme B, Laigret J (1979) Longevity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica and mosquito infection acquired from a patient with low level parasitemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:53–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chu BK, Deming M, Biritwum NK, Bougma WR, Dorkenoo AM, El-Setouhy M et al (2013) Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to define endpoints for lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration: a multicenter evaluation. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 7(12):e2584.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002584 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: progress report on mass drug administration, 2010 (2011) WklyEpidemiol. Rec No 35(86):377–388Google Scholar
  5. Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare: National vector borne diseases control programme; Problems and elimination of lymphatic filariasis in India (2005). Available from: http://www.namp.gov.in/filariasis.html. Cited 12 Jan 2010
  6. Hawking F (1962) A review of progress in the chemotherapy and control of filariasis since 1955. Bull World Health Org 27(4–5):555–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Mak JW (1987) Epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis. Ciba Found Symp 127:5–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Malhotra I, Mungai PL, Wamachi AN, Tisch D, Kioko JM et al (2006) Prenatal T cell immunity to Wuchereria bancrofti and its effect on filarial immunity and infection susceptibility during childhood. J Infect Dis 193:1005–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Omori N (1962) A review of the role of mosquitos in the transmission of Malayan and Bancroftian filariasis in Japan. Bull World Health Org 27:585–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Pani SP, Subramanyam Reddy G, Das LK, Vanamail P, Hoti SL, Ramesh J, Das PK (2002) Tolerability and efficacy of single dose albendazole, diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) or co-administration of albendazole with DEC in the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti in asymptomatic microfilaraemic volunteers in Pondicherry, South India: a hospital-based study. Filaria J 1:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ramaiah KD, Das PK, Michael E, Guyatt H (2000) The economic burden of lymphatic filariasis in India. Parasitol Today 16(6):251–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sabesan S (2006) Albendazole for mass drug administration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Lancet Infect Dis 6:684–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sabesan S, Palaniyandi M, Das PK, Michael E (2000) Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94:591–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sunish IP, Rajendran R, Mani TR, Munirathinam A, Dash AP, Tyagi BK (2006) Vector control complements mass drug administration against bancroftian filariasis in Tirukoilur, India. Bull World Health Organ 85(2):138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tyagi BK (1994) Distribution of arthropod vector-borne communicable diseases and control of their vectors in India. Indian Rev Life Sci 14:223–243Google Scholar
  16. Vanamail P, Subramanian S, Das PK, Pani SP, Rajagopalan PK, Bundy DA et al (1989) Estimation of age-specific rates of acquisition and loss of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83:689–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vanamail P, Ramaiah KD, Pani SP, Das PK, Grenfell BT, Bundy DA (1996) Estimation of the fecund life span of Wuchereria bancrofti in an endemic area. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90:119–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. VCRC (2014) Report on independent appraisal of elimination of lymphatic FilariasisProgramme in India. Vector Control Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, PuducherryGoogle Scholar
  19. WHO (2005) Sixth meeting of the technical advisory group on the global elimination of lymphatic Filariasis, Geneva, Switzerland. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80:401–408Google Scholar
  20. WHO (2008) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Wkly Epidemiol 83(37):333–341Google Scholar
  21. WHO (2013) Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Progress report for 2012. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 88(37):389–399Google Scholar
  22. Witt C, Ottesen EA (2001) Lymphatic filariasis: an infection of childhood. Tropical Med Int Health 6(8):582–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Joshi
    • 1
  1. 1.National Vector Borne Diseases Control ProgrammeMinistry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of IndiaDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations