Advertisement

A Broad Introduction to First-, Second-, and Third-Generation Biofuels

  • Sonil NandaEmail author
  • Rachita Rana
  • Prakash K. Sarangi
  • Ajay K. Dalai
  • Janusz A. Kozinski
Chapter

Abstract

The aggregating usage of fossil fuels, rising demand for energy, fluctuating fuel prices, and increasing emissions of greenhouse gases are some of the concerning factors contributing to a shift in the interest from fossil fuels to biofuels. Biofuels are carbon-neutral sources of energy as the CO2 emissions resulting from their combustion is utilized by the plants during photosynthesis leading to no net increase in atmospheric CO2 levels. It is indispensable to focus on the new approaches to the research, development, and production of biofuels and their processing technologies to reshape a sustainable bioeconomy. Biofuels can be categorized into first, second, and third generation depending on the feedstock used for their production. The product range for first-generation biofuels is largely limited to ethanol produced from corn and distillers grains. In contrast, the second-generation biofuels are produced from non-food residues or lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural biomass and forestry refuse, as well as energy crops. The third-generation biofuels are produced from algae, sewage sludge, and municipal solid wastes. This chapter comprehensively focuses on various first-, second-, and third-generation biofuels with emphasis on their biomass sources, fuel properties, and applications. The fuel products broadly discussed in this chapter are ethanol, butanol, bio-oil, biodiesel, algal oil, hydrogen, biomethane, and aviation fuel.

Keywords

Biofuel Biomass Bioethanol Biobutanol Bio-oil Biodiesel Algal oil Hydrogen Biomethane Aviation fuel 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for funding this bioenergy research.

References

  1. Åhman M (2010) Biomethane in the transport sector – an appraisal of the forgotten option. Energy Policy 38:208–217.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balat M, Balat H (2009a) Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel. Appl Energy 86:2273–2282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balat M, Balat M (2009b) Political, economic and environmental impacts of biomass-based hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:3589–3603.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.02.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balat H, Kırtay E (2010) Hydrogen from biomass – present scenario and future prospects. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:7416–7426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.04.137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartels JR, Pate MB, Olson NK (2010) An economic survey of hydrogen production from conventional and alternative energy sources. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:8371–8384.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.04.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boden TA, Marland G, Andres RJ (2009) Global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/overview_2007.html. Accessed 3 May 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae – a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:557–577.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiaramonti D, Prussi M, Buffi M, Tacconi D (2014) Sustainable bio kerosene: process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels. Appl Energy 136:767–774.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chynoweth DP (2005) Renewable biomethane from land and ocean energy crops and organic wastes. Hortscience 40:283–286Google Scholar
  10. Demirbas A (2010) Use of algae as biofuel sources. Energy Convers Manag 51:2738–2749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demirbas A (2011) Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass. Appl Energy 88:17–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demirbas MF, Balat M (2006) Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: a global perspective. Energy Convers Manag 47:2371–2381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2005.11.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Demirbas A, Demirbas MF (2011) Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel. Energy Convers Manag 52:163–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.06.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dürre P (2008) Fermentative butanol production bulk chemical and biofuel. Ann NY Acad Sci 1125:353–362.  https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1419.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO (2008) The state of food and agriculture. Biofuels: prospects, risks, and opportunities. FOA, RomeGoogle Scholar
  16. Frigon JC, Guiot SR (2010) Biomethane production from starch and lignocellulosic crops: a comparative review. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 4:447–458.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fukuda H, Konda A, Noda N (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils. J Biosci Bioeng 92:405–416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(01)80288-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. García V, Päkkilä J, Ojamo H, Muurinen E, Keiski RL (2011) Challenges in biobutanol production: how to improve the efficiency? Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:964–980.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gegg P, Budd L, Ison S (2014) The market development of aviation biofuel: drivers and constraints. J Air Transp Manag 39:34–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2014.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Rakopoulos DC (2013) Exhaust emissions with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 17:170–190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gnansounou E, Dauriat A (2005) Ethanol fuel from biomass: a review. J Sci Ind Res 64:809–821Google Scholar
  22. Green EM (2011) Fermentative production of butanol – the industrial perspective. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:337–343.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.02.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Greenwell HC, Laurens LM, Shields RJ, Lovitt RW, Flynn KJ (2010) Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority list: a review of the technological challenges. J R Soc Interface 7:703–726.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2009.0322 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hahn-Hägerdal B, Galbe M, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Lidén G, Zacchi G (2006) Bio-ethanol – the fuel of tomorrow from the residues of today. Trends Biotechnol 24:549–556.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.10.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hari TK, Yaakob Z, Binitha NN (2015) Aviation biofuel from renewable resources: routes, opportunities and challenges. Renew Sust Energ Rev 42:1234–1244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.095 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hileman JI, Stratton RW, Donohoo PE (2010) Energy content and alternative jet fuel viability. J Propuls Power 26:1184–1196.  https://doi.org/10.2514/1.46232 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Holladay JD, Hu J, King DL, Wang Y (2009) An overview of hydrogen production technologies. Catal Today 139:244–260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2008.08.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hossain ABMS, Salleh A, Boyce AN, Chowdhury P, Naqiuddin M (2008) Biodiesel fuel production from algae as renewable energy. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 4:250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. International Energy Outlook, IEO (2010) U.S. Energy Information Administration. Report #: DOE/EIA-0484(2010), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Isahak WNRW, Hisham MWM, Yarmo MA, Hin TYY (2012) A review on bio-oil production from biomass by using pyrolysis method. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16:5910–5923.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.05.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacobson K, Maheria KC, Dalai AK (2013) Bio-oil valorization: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 23:91–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jin C, Yao M, Liu H, Lee CF, Ji J (2011) Progress in the production and application of n-butanol as a biofuel. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:4080–4106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kırtay E (2011) Recent advances in production of hydrogen from biomass. Energy Convers Manag 52:1778–1789.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar M, Gayen K (2011) Developments in biobutanol production: new insights. Appl Energy 88:1999–2012.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Levin DB, Chahine R (2010) Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:4962–4969.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.08.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Llamas A, García-martínez MJ, Al-Lal AM, Canoira L, Lapuerta M (2012) Biokerosene from coconut and palm kernel oils: production and properties of their blends with fossil kerosene. Fuel 102:483–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marchetti JM, Miguel VU, Errazu AF (2005) Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11:1300–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr, Steele PH (2006) Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review. Energy Fuel 20:848–889.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0502397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mohanty P, Nanda S, Pant KK, Naik S, Kozinski JA, Dalai AK (2013) Evaluation of the physiochemical development of biochars obtained from pyrolysis of wheat straw, timothy grass and pinewood: effects of heating rate. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 104:485–493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2013.05.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Molino A, Nanna F, Ding Y, Bikson B, Braccio G (2013) Biomethane production by anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Fuel 103:1003–1009.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.07.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mortensen PM, Grunwaldt J, Jensen PA, Knudsen KG, Jensen AD (2011) A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels. Appl Catal A Gen 407:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2011.08.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Murugesan A, Umarani C, Subramanian R, Nedunchezhian N (2009) Bio-diesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines – a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 13:653–662.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mussatto SI, Dragone G, Guimarães PM, Silva JP, Carneiro LM, Roberto IC, Vicente A, Domingues L, Teixeira JA (2010) Technological trends, global market, and challenges of bio-ethanol production. Biotechnol Adv 28:817–830.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.07.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Nanda S, Mohanty P, Pant KK, Naik S, Kozinski JA, Dalai AK (2013) Characterization of North American lignocellulosic biomass and biochars in terms of their candidacy for alternate renewable fuels. Bioenergy Res 6:663–677.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12155-012-9281-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nanda S, Dalai AK, Kozinski JA (2014a) Butanol and ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock: biomass pretreatment and bioconversion. Energy Sci Eng 2:138–148.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nanda S, Mohammad J, Reddy SN, Kozinski JA, Dalai AK (2014b) Pathways of lignocellulosic biomass conversion to renewable fuels. Biomass Convers Biorefinery 4:157–191.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-013-0097-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nanda S, Mohanty P, Kozinski JA, Dalai AK (2014c) Physico-chemical properties of bio-oils from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with high and slow heating rate. Energy Environ Res 4:21–32.  https://doi.org/10.5539/eer.v4n3p21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nanda S, Azargohar R, Dalai AK, Kozinski JA (2015) An assessment on the sustainability of lignocellulosic biomass for biorefining. Renew Sust Energ Rev 50:925–941.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nanda S, Golemi-Kotra D, McDermott JC, Dalai AK, Gökalp I, Kozinski JA (2017) Fermentative production of butanol: perspectives on synthetic biology. New Biotechnol 37:210–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2017.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nizami AS, Korres NE, Murphy JD (2009) Review of the integrated process for the production of grass biomethane. Environ Sci Technol 43:8496–8508.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es901533j CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Nygren E, Aleklett K, Höök M (2009) Aviation fuel and future oil production scenario. Energy Policy 37:4003–4010.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.04.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Patrizio P, Leduc S, Chinese D, Dotzauer E, Kraxner F (2015) Biomethane as transport fuel – a comparison with other biogas utilization pathways in northern Italy. Appl Energy 157:25–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.07.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patterson T, Esteves S, Dinsdale R, Guwy A, Maddy J (2013) Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel. Bioresour Technol 131:235–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.109 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Qureshi N, Ezeji TC (2008) Butanol, ‘a superior biofuel’ production from agricultural residues (renewable biomass): recent progress in technology. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 2:319–330.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ryckebosch E, Drouillon M, Vervaeren H (2011) Techniques for transformation of biogas to biomethane. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1633–1645.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.02.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Savage N (2011) Alage: the scum solution. Nature 474:S15–S16.  https://doi.org/10.1038/474S015a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Scott SA, Davey MP, Dennis JS, Horst I, Howe CJ, Lea-Smith DJ, Smith AG (2010) Biodiesel from algae: challenges and prospects. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:277–286.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2010.03.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Shay EG (1993) Diesel fuel from vegetable oils: status and opportunities. Biomass Bioenergy 4:227–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0961-9534(93)90080-N CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Solomon BD, Barnes JR, Halvorsen KE (2007) Grain and cellulosic ethanol: history, economics, and energy policy. Biomass Bioenergy 31:416–425.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.01.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thamsiriroj T, Murphy JD (2011) A critical review of the applicability of biodiesel and grass biomethane as biofuels to satisfy both biofuel targets and sustainability criteria. Appl Energy 88:1008–1019.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.10.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. United States Energy Information Administration, USEIA (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011. Accessed from: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/pdf/0484(2011).pdf. Accessed 3 Jan 2012
  62. United States Energy Information Administration, USEIA (2017) Total petroleum and other liquids production 2014. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/data/browser/. Accessed 3 May 2017
  63. Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG, Morgan TJ (2012) An overview of the organic and inorganic phase composition of biomass. Fuel 94:1–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.09.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. von Blottnitz H, Ann M (2007) A review of assessments conducted on bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel from a net energy, greenhouse gas, and environmental life cycle perspective. J Clean Prod 15:607–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2006.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang M, Wu M, Huo H (2007) Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types. Environ Res Lett 2:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/2/2/024001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xiu S, Shahbazi A (2012) Bio-oil production and upgrading research: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16:4406–4414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.04.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yilmaz N, Vigil FM, Benalil K, Davis SM, Calva A (2014) Effect of biodiesel–butanol fuel blends on emissions and performance characteristics of a diesel engine. Fuel 135:46–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.06.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zacher AH, Olarte MV, Santosa DM, Elliott DC, Jones SB (2014) A review and perspective of recent bio-oil hydrotreating research. Green Chem 16:491–515.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3GC41382A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhang Q, Chang J, Jun T, Xu Y (2006) Upgrading bio-oil over different solid catalysts. Energy Fuel 20:2717–2720.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef060224o CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonil Nanda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rachita Rana
    • 2
  • Prakash K. Sarangi
    • 3
  • Ajay K. Dalai
    • 2
  • Janusz A. Kozinski
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Directorate of ResearchCentral Agricultural UniversityImphalIndia
  4. 4.New Model in Technology & EngineeringHerefordUK

Personalised recommendations